Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

Journal of humanity science is published by Salahaddin University-Erbil based on six issues a year. The journal will accept any academic paper in the fields of Humanity science. We will accept the papers in the all the regional and international languages.  

The journal is published both online and print.   


Section Policies


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process

 All manuscripts submitted for publication in our journals are strictly and thoroughly peer-reviewed. The Editorial Offices will organize peer-review and collect at least two review comments per manuscript. The Editorial Board prepares a decision letter according to the comments of the reviewers, which is sent to the corresponding author. We usually allow 4 weeks for each peer-review process.



Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.



This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...


Editorial Team

Chief of Editorial Board: Prof. Dr.Qadir M. Hasan

Secretary of Editorial Board: Dr.Abbas B. Qadir

Editorial board:

Prof. Dr. Omer I. Aziz

Prof. Dr. Shukr M. Abdulla

Prof. Dr. Sabah A. Muhammed

Prof. Dr. Kamak S. Mustafa

Prof. Dr. Hussein S. Ibrahim

Prof. Dr. Izzaddin M. Amin

Prof. Dr. Abdulla M. Qadir

Prof. Dr. Himdad H. Bakr

Asst. Prof. Dr. Rezan A. Ibrahim

Asst. Prof. Salam Nawxosh



manegement Staff

  Management Staff

1.Mrs.Snoor Faisal Aziz

2.Mrs.Leyla Hamid Muhammed

3.Mr. Khder Hussein Rasul

4.Mr. Ary Abdullah Azeez

5.Mrs. Nawroz Faisal Ahmed

6.Mrs. Srood Hadi Muhammed


Referencing System

Click on the preferred language


This guide can be a useful guide for those who are in the process of conducting a scientific research. From an academic prospective the researchers have to support their arguments with published researches, it is also clear that, referencing is an important part of the presentation of written work. 

There are many systems for citation and referencing, depending on the universities guidelines, each university recognises a system. The Harvard referencing system is one of the most famous and well recognised systems by universities and education providers as well as the world famous journals.

Citing & Referencing

Harvard System

Citing and Referencing Explained


Citing is acknowledging in the text of your work the sources you have used.  The most common method of citation and referencing is the Harvard System.  However, in some areas an alternative system is used. 


A reference is the list of the material you have cited in your text and it must be set out in such a way so that the reader can locate the sources you have consulted.

Why cite anyway?

  • You should acknowledge sources consulted for the production of written work otherwise you are guilty of plagiarism
  • It allows readers to locate the sources you have read
  • It is an important part of the presentation of written work



A bibliography is a list of all the material you have read but not necessarily included in your list of references.

The Harvard System

Citing authors in the text

In this system you write the author/originators name and the year of publication of the document and the page number in brackets after each reference in the text.


The research shows (Wheeler 1961, p.5)...

If the authors name occurs naturally in the text then only the year of publication and page number is given in brackets


Wheeler (1961, p.7) illustrates in his study…

If two or more documents have the same author in the same year then they should be distinguished by lower case letters after the year of publication than the page number is shown.


Wheeler (1961a, p.5) describes this process in his study.  In a second paper Wheeler (1961b, p.8) goes on further to explain...

If there are 2 or up to 3 authors, the surname of all must be given.


Wheeler, Smith and Jones (1993, p.15) have proposed that...

If there are more than three authors the surname of the first author is given followed by “et al” (Latin term meaning “and others”)


Wheeler et al. (1997, p. 3) believes...

If there is no author then “Anon” should be used to indicate that the source is unknown.


A recent article (Anon. 2001) states that...

If a reference is to a newspaper where no author is given the name of the newspaper can be used


The Independent (1999) states that...

Secondary sources

If you refer to a source quoted in another source you cite both in the text.


A study by Wheeler (1995 cited in Wood 1998, p.42) argues that...

You should only list Wood in your list of references, as this is the book/ article you have actually read. 

Citing Electronic Resources in the text

Please note:  Use of the URL within the body of the text is not usually acceptable.  It should only be listed in the reference list.


In the Harvard system the corresponding references to citations in the text are arranged at the end of a piece of work in alphabetical order of authors’ surname, subdivided if necessary by year and letter.

Religious texts

When you are quoting from a sacred text e.g. the Holly Quran, the Bible and the Torah, the suggested elements for a citation are:

Name of religious text Book, the Sura or Chapter: Verse


In-text citation

Full reference

(Al-Qur’an Al-karim 3: 5)

Al-Qur’an Al-karim, Surah al-Imran 3:5.

(Matthew 5: 3–12)

Matthew 5: 3–12, Revised standard

version of the Bible.

(Shemot 3: 14)

Torah. Shemot 3: 14

How to reference a book

Author/s editor/s surname (comma) followed by initials (full stop)

Year of publication (in brackets)

Title of book (either bold, italics or underlined) (full stop)

Edition (if not the first)

Place of publication (colon)

Publisher (full stop)

[Add series number and volume number if appropriate]

One Author


Hayes, N. (1998) Psychology: an introduction. 3rd edn.Harlow: Longman.

Two Authors


Winter, J. & Sivan, E. (eds.) (2000) War and remembrance in the Twentieth Century.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press.

Three Authors


Thwaites, A., Davis, L. & Mules, W. (1995) Tools for cultural studies: an introduction. South Melbourne: Macmillan EducationAustralia.

Multiple authors – more than 3*


Raven, P.H., Johnson, G.B., Losos, J.B. & Singer, S. R. (2005) Biology. 7th edn.Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Chapter within a book

Author/s of chapter or section Surname (comma) followed by initials (full stop)

Year of publication (in brackets)

Title of chapter/section (comma)

Use the word In:

Author/ Editor of book/ collected work (Surname (comma) followed by initials) (full stop)

Title of the book/ collected work (either bold, italics or underlined).

Edition (if not the first)

Place of publication (colon)

Publisher (comma)

Page numbers of chapter (full stop)


Merridale, C. (2000) War, death and remembrance in Soviet Russia, In: Winter, J. & Sivan, E. (eds.) War and remembrance in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Press, pp. 61-83.

How to reference a journal article

Author/s of article (Surname (comma) followed by initials) (full stop)

Year of publication (in brackets)

Title of article (comma)

Title of journal (either bold, italics or underlined) (comma)

Volume number

Part/issue number (in brackets) (comma)

Page number/s (full stop)

One author


Bourget, D. (2004) Quantum leaps in the philosophy of the mind, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11(12), pp. 17-42.

Multiple authors


Milner, L.M., Herrmann, M., Girand, K., Baker, M.S. & Hiser, R.F. (2003) International sport fishing: the case of the German angler in Alaska, Tourism Analysis, 8(1), pp. 89-94.

Referencing a newspaper article

Similar to referencing a journal except – omit volume number and part/issue number and state the day and month of publication.


Hiscott, G. (2005) Salt level in food overtakes poisoning as main concern of shoppers, The Independent, 17 March, p.8.

Other Examples

Theses or Dissertation

Use the same method as a book reference but include the level of the award (B.A., BSc., M.A.) and the name of the awarding Institution.


Gayfer, J. (1993) Controlling wall thickness of extruded polythene pipe. BEng dissertation. University of Derby.


Organising/sponsoring organisation

Number (if appropriate)

Year (in brackets)

Title (in bold, italics or underlined)

Location of conference

Date of conference

Place of publication (colon)

Publisher (full stop)


World Health Organisation (1978) Primary health care: report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care. Alma-AtaUSSR, 6-12 September 1978.Geneva: W.H.O.

Audio-visual material

Typically prefer the title as the first element of the reference but if an individual has clear responsibility for the intellectual content then they should be given as the originator.

Title (bold, italics, underlined)

Year (date of distribution)(brackets)

Originator (director preferred)

[Videocassette] (full stop)

Place of distribution (colon)

Organisation (full stop)


The Prince of tides (1997) Directed by Barbara Streisand [Videocassette].London: ITV.

Maps (Ordnance survey maps)

Originator - state Ordnance Survey

Year of publication (in brackets)

Title of map (bold, italics or underlined ) (comma)

Sheet number (comma)

Scale of map (e.g. 1: 50 000) (full stop)

Place of publication (colon)

Publisher (full stop)

Series (in brackets) (full stop)


Ordnance Survey (2002) Derby & Burton upon Trent, sheet 128, 1:50,000.Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Landranger Series).

Referencing Electronic Sources

As yet there is no universally accepted standard for citing electronic sources.  It is advisable to include in your references the date you accessed the information.


Author/s or Editor/s Surname (comma) followed by initials (full stop)

Year of publication (i.e. year of print version, or year of electronic version if there is one)

Title (either in bold, italics or underlined) (full stop)

Edition (if not the first)

Electronic book supplier

[Online] (full stop)

Available at: Specify URL (Internet address)

Date of access: (brackets) (full stop)


Davis, B. (2000) Caring for people in pain. Netlibrary [Online]. Available at:  http://www.netlibrary.com/Reader  (Accessed: 6 January 2004).


Author/s (Surname (comma) followed by initials) (full stop)

Year of publication (in brackets)

Title of article (comma)

Title of journal (either in bold, italics or underlined) (comma)

Volume number

Issue number (in brackets) (comma)

Page number or online equivalent

Name of electronic collection

[Online] (full stop)

Available at: Specify URL (Internet address)

Date of access: (brackets) (full stop)


Orkerson, A. (1991) The electronic journal: what, whence and when? Public Access Computer Systems Review, 2 (1), pp. 23-24 EBSCO [Online].  Available at: http://info.lib.uh.edu/pr/v2/n1/okerson.2nl  (Accessed: 6 June 2002).

Website or Internet Database

Referencing a whole website

Author, Editor or Publishing Organisation

Year (in brackets)

Website title (bold, italics or underlined ) (full stop)

[Online] (full stop)

Available at: Specify URL (Internet address)

Date of access: (brackets) (full stop)


Historic Houses Association. (2005) Historic Houses Association. [Online]. Available at: http://www.hha.org.uk  (Accessed: 6 April 2005).

Web pages or extract from a database

Author/editor or Publishing Organisation

Year (in brackets)

Title of extract (comma)

Title of database (bold, italics or underlined)

[Online] (full stop)

Available at: Specify URL (Internet address)

Date of access: (brackets) (full stop)


Darnell, M.J. (2002) Opening the file drawer, Bad Human Factors Designs [Online].  Available at: http://www.baddesigns.com/file.html  (Accessed: 6 April 2005).