Main Article Content
National Culture, organizational culture, Kurds and Kurdistan, cultural approaches and typologies
This paper examines the relationship between national culture and organizational culture in the context of private and public sector organizations in Iraqi Kurdistan. To understand the influence of national culture on organizational culture a cross-sectorial comparison has been made between both sector organizations. A discussion was built on past research and theoretical framework and it highlights some of the cultural approaches and typologies. This study also explains who are the Kurds, Kurdistan, their national culture and organizational culture perspectives. Through self-response survey questionnaires the national culture and organizational culture dimensions of some major organizations in private and public sectors in Iraqi Kurdistan were discovered. Multi-regression analyses as well as correlation coefficient tests were conducted to determine whether variables have any statistically significant relationship. Thus, national culture variable was regressed on organizational culture variable in both sectors independently. The results from analyses indicated that there is a significant relationship between national culture and organizational culture in Iraqi Kurdistan. The analysis also showed that national culture impacts organizational culture in private sector whereas, no effect or weak correlation were seen in public sector organizations. Organizations in general and public sector in particular were dominated by hierarchy culture followed by clan culture. But the dominated culture in private sector organizations was hierarchy culture followed by market culture. The findings also demonstrated that there is a negative relationship between demographic variable and organizational culture. A conceptual figure was proposed and some recommendations were suggested
Aaltio, I., & Mills, J.A., 2004. Gender, Identity and the Culture of Organizations. London & New York: Routledge
Alvesson, M., 2002. Understanding Organizational Culture. London: SAGE Publications.
Aquinas, G. P., 2007. 1.1 Management Principles and Practice. 1.2 Organizational Behaviour. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046.
Ashforth, E. B., and Anand, V., 2003. The Normalization of Corruption in Organizations: Stow, M. B., & Kramer, M. R., ed. 2003. Research in Organizational Behavior, an Annual Serious of analytical Essays and Critical Reviews. Vol 25. 1-52.
Baines, P., & Chansarkar, B., 2002. Introducing Marketing Research. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Belias, D., & Koustelios, A., 2014. Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction: A Review. International Review of Management and Marketing. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014, pp.132-149.
Bernstein, M.J., 2011. Frequencies and Descriptive Statistics. [video online] available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrfQfEwjZA4 [ accessed 27/12/2014].
Bioinformatics, B., 2007-8. Introduction to Statistics with SPSS (15.0) Version 2.3 (Public). Anne Segonds-Pichon.
Biostatistics Resource Channel, 2013. How to Use SPSS: Factor Analysis (Principal Component Analysis). [video online] available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYxboC27190 [accessed 03/01/2015].
Boak, G., 2007. Organizational Cultures work book.
Bondanella, P., & Musa, M., ed. 1979. The Portable Machiavelli. England: A Penguin Book.
Brown, D. J., 2002. The Cronbach alpha reliability estimate. Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter. 6 (1), P.17-18.
Brun, P. J., & Cooper, C., 2009. MISSING PIECES 7 Ways to Improve Employee Well-Being and Organizational Effectiveness. England: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.
Bryman, A., & Bell, E., 2007. Business Research Methods. Second Edition. United States; Oxford University Press.
Cameron, s. K., & Quinn, R., 2006. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture, Based on The Competing Values Framework. Revised Edition. U.S.A. Jossey-Bass.
Cameron, s. K., & Quinn, R., 2011. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture, Based on The Competing Values Framework. Third Edition. U.S.A. Jossey-Bass.
Caldwell, C., n.d. Working in Iraq & Iraqi Kurdistan. Aperian Global.
Center for Creative Leadership, 2014. Leader Effectiveness and Culture: The GLOBE Study.
Cook, F. P., 2010. SPSS-Version, 18.0. University of Colorado Denver, Center for Nursing Research.
De Mooij, M., 1997. Mapping Cultural Values for Global Marketing & Advertising. New Ways of Looking at Consumer. Scotland: ESOMAR. Part 11, pp. 680-703.
De Mooij, M., 2000. The future is predictable for international marketers, converging incomes lead to diverging consumer behaviour. International Marketing Review. Cross-cultural communications company, Netherlands. Vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 103-113.
De Mooij, M., 2001. Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior. Cross Cultural Communications Company, looks at the habits of consumers across national divides. World Advertising Research, pp. 30-33.
De Mooij, M., 2002. Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior. Comunicación y sociedad, pp. 1-14.
De Mooij, M., 2003. Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising. International Journal of Advertising. Cross Cultural Communications Company, the Netherlands and University of Navarre, Spain. 22, pp. 183-202.
De Mooij, M., 2004. Translating Advertising Painting the Tip of an Iceberg. St Jerome Publishing, Manchester. Cross Cultural Communications Company & Universidad de Navarra, Spain. The Translator. Volume 10, Number 2 (2004), 179-198.
De Mooij, M., & Hostede, G., 2010. Hofstede Model, Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29 (1), pp.85-110.
De Mooij, M., 2011. Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. 2nd Ed. United States: SAGE.
De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G., 2011. Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: A Review of Research Findings. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23, pp.181–192.
De Mooij, M., 2013. On the misuse and misinterpretation of dimensions of national culture. International Marketing Review. Cross Cultural Communications Consultancy, Burgh-Haamstede, The Netherlands. Vol. 30 No. 3, 2013 pp. 253-261.
Ebster, C., 2012. Data Aanalysis in SPSS Made Easy. [video online] available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0G_GAdo268 [accessed 25/12/2014].
Future in Iraqi Kurdistan, 13.12/2015. www.NRT.TV.business
Gareth R. V. Stansfield., 2003. Iraqi Kurdistan, Political Development & Emergent Democracy. England: Routledge Curzon, Taylor & Francis group.
Garth, A., 2008. Analyzing data using SPSS. A practical guide for those unfortunate enough to actually do it. Sheffield Hallam Univeristy.
Gray, J. R., 1998. Organizational Culture and Psychological Contract, A review of the literature. UK: Published by Cumpania Consulting.
Hassan, S., 2015a. Change in scores of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions in Iraq by using Individual Level of Measures, a case study of Iraqi Kurds. European Journal of Business & Management. Vol.7, No.9, pp. 212-225.
Hassan, S., 2015a. THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL CULTURE ON INTERNATIONAL MARKETING & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN IRAQI KURDISTAN, USING HOFSTEDE’S MODEL AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL.
British Journal of Marketing Studies, Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK.
Vol.3, No.8, pp.50-78.
Hair, F. J. JR., Bush, P. R., Ortinuau, J. D., 2002. Marketing Research Within a Changing Information Environment. London: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Hofstede, G., 1980. Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J., & Minkov, M., 2010. Culture and Organization – Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival. 3rd Ed. United States: The McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede. G.J., Hofstede, G., & Pedersen, P.B., 2002. Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Culture. United States: Intercultural Press.
Hofstede, G., 2011. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014
Hofstede, G., what about Iraq. The Hofstede Centre. [online] available at: http://geert-hofstede.com/iraq.html [accessed 14/12/2014].
Human Rights Watch, 2010. “They Took Me and Told Me Nothing” Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan. Printed in the United States of America.
House, J. R., Hanges, J. P., Quintanilla, R, A., Dorfman, W. P., Javidan, M., & Dickson, M., N.D. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONS: PROJECT GLOBE. University of Zurich.
House, J. R., Javidan, M., Dorfman, W. P., &Hanges, J. P., 2002. Understanding Cultures and Implicit Leadership Theories across the Globe: an Introduction to Project GLOBE. Journal of World Business, 37, pp. 3-10.
House, J. R., Javidan, M., Dorfman, W. P., Hanges, J. P., & De-Luque, S.M., 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: Th e GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. The Journal of Applied Christian Leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 818 pages.
House, J. R., Javidan, M., Dorfman, W. P., Hanges, J. P., & De-Luque, S.M., 2006. Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE’s and Hofstede’s approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 897–914
Huczynski, A. A., & Buchanan, A. D., 2007. Organizational Behaviour. Six Edition. England: FT Prentice Hall.
IBM SPSS Statistics Base 19. 2010. Copyright SPSS Inc.
IBM SPSS Statistics Basic. 2011. Biostatistics Consulting. University of Massachusetts School of Public Health. https://udrive.oit.umass.edu/statdata/spss.zip
Isaksen, S., & Tidd, J., 2006. Meeting the Innovation Challenge: Leadership for Transformation and Growth. England: Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sinn, J., N.D. SPSS Guide, Correlation & Regression. Winthrop University.
Kondalkar, V. G., 2007. Organizational Behaviour. India: New Age Publication.
Landau, S., & Everitt, S. B., 2004. A Handbook of Statistical Analyses using SPSS. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press LLC.
Livingstone, D., 2007. Terrorism and The Illuminati, A Three Thousand Years History. U.S.A
Maximini, D., 2015. The Scrum Culture, Organizational Culture Models, chapter 1.Management for Professionals, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
McShane, L.S., 2000. Organizational Culture. Chapter Sixteen: pp. 497-521.
Michel, A., & Wortham, S., 2009. BULLISH ON UNCERTAINTY, How Organizational Cultures Transform Participants. Cambridge University Press.
Meho, I. L., 1997. The Kurds & Kurdistan, a Selective & Annoted Bibliography. England: Greenwood Publishing group.
Mohsen, T., & Dennick, R., 2011. Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education. 2; 53-55.
Morrison, J., 2002. The International Business Environment: Diversity and the global economy. United States: Palgrave.
Mullins, J. L., 2005. Management and Organizational Behaviour. Seven Edition. England: FT, Prentice Hall.
O’shea, T. M., 2006. Trapped Between the Map & Reality, Geography and Perception of Kurdistan. England: Routledge, Taylor & Francis group.
Pfister, A, J., 2009. Managing Organizational Culture for Effective Internal Control, from practice to theory. Zurich, Physica-Verlag.
Pheysey, C. D., 2003. Organizational Cultures, Types and Transformations. London and New York, Routledge.
Rarick, C., Winter, G., Barczyk, C., & Merkt, E., 2014. Iraqi & Kurdish Cultural Values in the Semi- Autonomous State of Kurdistan. Global Journal of Management & Business Research: Administration & Management. VOl; 14, Issue 3.
Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A., 2013. Organizational Behavior. Fifteenth Edition. England: Pearson Education limited.
Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T.A., 2011. Organizational Behavior. Fourth Edition. England: Pearson Education limited.
Rollinson, D., Broadfield, A., & Edward, J. D., 1998. Organizational Behaviour & Analysis, An Integrated Approach. England: Addison-Wesley.
Ros, M., Schwartz, H. S., & Shoshana, S., 1999. Basic Individual Values, Work Values, and the Meaning of Work. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 48 ( I ) , 49-71.
Schein, H. E., 2004. Organizational Culture & Leadership. Third Edition. USA. Jossey-Bass.
Schein, H. E., 2010. Organizational Culture & Leadership. Fourth Edition. USA. Jossey-Bass.
Schwartz, H. S., 2006. A Theory of Cultural Value Orientations: Explication and Applications. Comparative Sociology, Volume 5, issue 2-3, pp. 137-182.
Semerek, E, R., 2010. Cultural Perspectives of Academia: Toward a Model of Cultural Complexity. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. University of Michigan, Springer Science+Business Media.
Shafaqnews, 30/09/2014. ISIS and Baghdad siege on Kurdistan hit the economy and drives 100 thousand into unemployment, (www.Shafaqnews,)
Soares, M. A., Farhangmehr, M., & Shoham, A., 2007. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture in International Marketing Studies. Journal of Business Research. Pp. 277-284.
SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis (15/12/2015)
SPSS, Chapter 4: Regression Analysis (15/12/2015)
Sun, S., 2008. Organizational Culture and Its Themes. International Journal of Business and Management.Vol. 3, No. 12, pp. 137-141.
Surji, M. K., 2014. The Positive Affect of Leadership on Employee Performance and Its Impact on Improving Workplace Environment in Addition to Organizational Culture. European Journal of Business and Management. org.Vol.6, No.25.
Surji. M. K., 2015. Understanding Patients’ Perception and Experience in Improving Quality Healthcare with one of the Leading Public Hospitals in Erbil, Iraq. European Journal of Business and Management. Vol.7, No.2, pp. 127-151.
Trompenaars, F., & Turner, C.H., 1997. RIDING THE WAVES OF CULTURE: Cultural Diversity in Business. 2nd ed. London: Nicoholas Brealey Publishing.
Tsui, S. A., Sushi, S. N., & Amy, Y. O., 2007. Cross-National, Cross-Organizational Behavior Research: Advance Gaps and Recommendations. Journal of Management, 33, 426. SAGE Publications.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013. CORRUPTION AND INTEGRITY CHALLENGES IN
THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF IRAQ, An evidence‐based study. United Nations Development Programme Iraq
Central Statistical Office of Iraq Kurdistan Regional Statistical Office Commission of Integrity.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lenartowicz, T., 2011. Measuring Hofstede’s Five Dimensions of Cultural Values at the Individual Level: Development and Validation of CVSCALE. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23, pp. 193-210
Zaken, M., 2007. Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan, A Study in Survival. The Netherlands: Brill