The Status Profile of the Individual Bilinguals in the Domain Language of KRG

  • Saifadden Ibrahim Sharif Basic Education College/ Salahaddin University-Erbil
  • Tahsin Hussein Rassul Basic Education College/ Salahaddin University-Erbil
Keywords: bilingualism, domain language, sociolinguistics, Arabs, Kurds


This research is entitled “The Status Profile of the Individual Bilinguals in the Domain Language of KRG’’ in which the term profile implies “a short description of someone’s life, character, work, etc.” and bilingual means “an individual’s ability to use two or more than one language successfully”. And Domain Language refers to the Kurdish language which is the formal, regional, first language in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq. The methodology of the current paper is the mixed (i.e., quantitative and qualitative). The researchers surveyed 17 Arab-ethnic bilinguals living in the domain language in the hope of displaying some implicit factors of their language choice (Arabic and/ or Kurdish) in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq in 2018.The method or tool of investigating the current study case is a questionnaire with both 20 close- and open-ended items. The objectives of this study are to uncover the situations or contexts where Arab-ethnic bilinguals switch one language to the other and to understand why they prefer or are constrained or forced to use one language rather than the other.  The problem of the paper draws its direction to that a number of Arab workers or people who are internally displaced persons (IDPs) migrated to Kurdistan Region-Iraq due to facing the ISIS attack or war, consequently settling (at least temporarily) in the region. Thus, they are expected to face problems of expressing themselves through using Arabic and Kurdish languages if they are bilinguals as they cannot determine or resort to their either language usage easily, but based on some factors. There are some questions posed to be responded about bilinguals’ attitudes in language choice in the community, the contexts in which they resort to using each language, and their reasons of shifting from language to language in their communication. Among the study conclusions, social factors, political status and language prestige are most likely to be highlighted as the factors of language choice and change.


Bell, R. T., 1967. Sociolinguistics: Goals, Approaches and Problems. London: Batsford.
Borbely, A., 2005. Changes in Bilingual Language Choice Influenced by Real and Apparent Time: Panel Study in the Process of Language Shift in a Romanian Minority Community Living in Hungary. Hundarian , Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences .
Buda, J. K., 2006. Language Choice. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 1 November 2017].
Cantone, K. F., 2007. Bilingualism and Bilingual First Language Acquisition.. Code-Switching in Bilingual Children. Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics, Volume 37, pp. 1-11.
Edwards, J. R., 2013. Sociolinguist: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press .
Fatmas, 2011. Arabizi: Arabic: A language of beauty and prestige. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 3 November 2017].
Genesee, F., 1989. Early binigual development: one language or two?. Child Language, Volume 16, pp. 161-179.
Grosjean, F., 1982. Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Grosjean, F., 1985. The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6(6), pp. 467-477.
Grosjean, F., 1998. Studying bilinguals: methodological and conceptual issues. Oxford: Oxford University press.
Grosjean, F., 2010. Psychology Today. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 2 November 2017].
Grosjean, F., 2012. A Holistic Vidw of Bililnguals: What Do Bilinguals and Hurdlers Have in Common?. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 2 January 2019].
Hashim, M. H., 2010. A collaborative creative writing project. Sawarak: Univeersiti Malaysia.
Holmes, J., 1992. An Introdctoin to Sociolinguistics. fourth edition ed. Oxon: Routledge.
Holmes, J., 2013. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 4th ed. Oxon: Routledge.
Hudson, R. A., 1980. Sociolinguistics. second ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jendra, I. I. M., 2010. Sociolinguistics: The Study of societies' Languages. Denpasar: Graha Ilmu.
Khalil, M. H., 2014. Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krauss, R. M. & Chiu, C., 1997. Language and Social Behavior. In: G. S. Fiske & G. Lindsey, eds. Handbook of Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill, pp. 41-88.
Suryadi, S., 2016. Language Choice Used by Students of English Department at Faculty of Arts and Humanities State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya (A Published Doctoral dissertation). Surabaya: UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
How to Cite
Sharif S, Rassul T. The Status Profile of the Individual Bilinguals in the Domain Language of KRG. JAHS [Internet]. 20Apr.2019 [cited 12Jul.2020];23(2):309 -320. Available from: