Psychological weaning, optimism and pessimism among university students

Main Article Content

Sanaa Taher Saleh
Yousif Hama Salih Mustafa


Psychological, optimism, university students


        The present study is intended to recognize the two figures of psychological weaning (father figure and mother figure), optimism and pessimism level among university students. Moreover, this study is aimed at determining the differences between the two figures of psychological weaning, optimism and pessimism according to gender, specialization and studying level and to recognize the nature of the relationship between these variables.

        The problem of the current study lies in the delay of psychological weaning, which might result in negative characteristics in the individual’s personality regarding dependence and childish psychological attachment that subsequently forms shy, submissive, dependent and selfish individuals who evade from incurring the responsibilities of life. This is in addition to obstruction of pessimistic strands, happiness, individuals’ psychological health, optimism and its positive influence on the psychological and physical health.  The importance of this research is clarification of the relation of psychological weaning, optimism and pessimism with many other variables, such as psychological independence, social and psychological adjustment, neuroticism, extraversion, other and self-assessment, psychological isolation, anxiety, physical and psychological health. This research included of (440) students of both genders.

           The psychological weaning measurement which was prepared by the researcher and al-ansari Scale 2002 measurements were used to measure psychological weaning, measure optimism and pessimism. Later on, the researcher made sure of the psychometric characteristics by extracting the face validity, translation validity, and reliability and discrimination power of all the items of both the scales and relationship of each section to the total degree of the scales. Mean, derivation, Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient, Eta correlation Spearman-Brown Spilt Half, T-test for one sample and T-test for two independent samples were used to perform statistical analysis of the data of this research.

Abstract 106 | PDF Downloads 64


1- Al-Ansari, Bader Mohammed (1998). Optimism and pessimism concept and measurement and related issues, first edition, Kuwait University, Scientific Al-Ended Publishing Council, the Committee of authorship, and translation.
2- Aziz, Hawzheen Mahmoud (2006). Self-Acceptance, Optimism and pessimism in Arrears in Marriage, Unpublished MA, Faculty of Education, Salahuddin University, Erbil.
3- Fahim, Clare (2005). Adolescents and their mental health, Culture Library for Publishing, Second Edition, Nobles Publishing House, Cairo, Egypt.
4- Ghamdi, Hamid (2009). Psycho-social development, Internet open-in (16/04/2013) http//
5- Golman, Daniel (2005). Emotional Intelligence ,translated by layla aljebali , dar al maarafa publishment
6- Hafni, Abdel Moneim (1978). Encyclopedia of the World of Psychology and Psychoanalysis Volume (3) First Edition, Beirut, Lebanon.
7- Hormuz, Sabah Hanna, Ibrahim, Youssef Hanna (1988). Formative Psychology (Childhood and Adolescence), Dar Al Kutub for Printing and Publishing, Mosul, Iraq.
8- Mahler ,M.S.(1968).on humanities symbiosis and the vicissitude’s individuation ,New york: international universities press.
9- Rabee, Hamadallah (2005). Educational chaos in the Arab region responsibility of family and society, Comprehensive electronic library, Al Qasimi Academy, College of Education Academy.
10 - Saad . Fouad Al-Bahi (1975). The Psychological Basis for Growth from Childhood to Aging, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi for Publishing, Fourth Edition, Cairo, Egypt.
11- - Schwarzer, R., & Renner, B. (1997). Risikoeinschätzung und Optimismus [Risk appraisal and optimism]. In Schwarzer,(Ed.) Gesundheitspsychologie. Ein Lehrbuch. [Health psychology: A textbook], (2nd rev. ed.), pp. 43-66. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.