A Comparative Study of Diminutive Forms in English and Kurdish
Knowing a language means knowing the morphemes of that language, which are the elemental units that constitute words of that language .Diminutives occur throughout the world’s languages, more often in oral to represent typically smallness, slightness ,affection intimacy, endearment and even derogation. Diminutives are mainly formed by attaching suffixes to a base. It is hypothesized that speakers and users are dissimilar in using their diminutives in their daily chit-chats owing to their age ,gender, culture ,and occupation . Accordingly, they face difficulty in forming diminutives since they are under the impact of various borrowing suffixes found in English .Thus ,one expects that this study will be rather beneficial for their users depending on specific interplay of linguistic and situational factors found in a given contexts of both languages .This paper deals with the diminutive forms in English and Kurdish as far as form , morphological process and parts of speech are concerned . It also sheds some light on the meanings of these forms in both languages when necessary . It has been observed that the two languages are similar to some extent concerning the class forms and meanings of such forms since both are related to Indo-European languages . Basically, both languages use suffixation and prefixation in the process of noun formation. However ,we ( as native speakers ) expect that Kurdish diminutive suffixes are greater in number if compared to English since English is a‘ diminutive-poor’ language , i. e. the character of diminutives in the English language is a subject of an ongoing debate since the Standard English has a very limited number of diminutives in comparison with other languages , German , Italian , or the Slavic languages , while some are liable to contribute to the opinion that the English language does not possess diminutives at all .
• Ameen, Noori Ali. (1958). AnotherFilling Gap of Kurdish Grammar: Prefixes and Suffixes. Ma’arif Press.
• -Bakir, S. Nawkhosh. (2005 ) . “Kurdish Diminutive System “, Journal of Doha University, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 1-6.
• Brutus, B. V. (1969).The Formation and Expressive Use of Diminutives. London: Cambridge University Press.
• Charleston, Britta M. (1960). Studies on the Emotional and Effective Means of Expression in Modern English. Bern:Francke .
• Crystal, David. (1992).An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Language and Languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
• Dressler. Wolfgang/ Merlini Barbaresi,Lavina . (1994). Morpho-pragmatics, Diminutives and Intensifiers in Italian, German, and other Languages. Berlin, New york: Mouton de Gruyter.
• Fakhri ,Nasreen and Kurdistan Mukriani . (1982). Kurdish Grammar. Salahaddin University Publishing-House.
• Fattah, Muhammad Maruf. (1997). A Generative Grammar of Kurdish. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
• Hornby, A. S. (1972). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Katamba, Francis. (1993). Modern Linguistic Morphology. London: Macmillan Press.
• Muhammad,Shadan Hama Amin . (2016). Semantic Relationship within Kurdish Bound Noun Morphemes. (Unpublished M A Thesis). University of Sulymani.
• Marchand, Hans. (1969). The Categories and Types of Presaent-day English Word-Formation. 2nded. – Munchen: Beck.
• Marf, Awrahmani Haji. (1987). Word – formation in Kurdish .Zanko: Zanko Press.
• -------------. (1979). Kurdish Grammar: Morphology .Volume 1 and Part 1. Nouns .Baghdad : Iraq Knowledge Assembly
• ------------. (1992). Kurdish Grammar: Morphology - Adjective. Vol.1, No. 3. Baghdad.
• McCarus, Ernest N. (1967). A Kurdish –English Dictionary. Dialect of Sulaimania, Iraq: University of Michigan Press.
• Mirawdeli, Kamal. (2007). A Dictionary of Kurdish Grammar. First Edition. Sulaimany: Kurdology Center.
• Peprnik, J. (2006). English Lexicology. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackeho Olomouci .
• Quirk, Randolph and Green Baum Sidney. (1973). A University Grammar of English. London: Longman Group Ltd.
• Quirk, R., Green Baum S., Leech G. and Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London and New York: Longman.
• Sadiq, Faruq Omar. (1975). Morphology in Kurdish. Journal of Kurdish Academy, Vol. 3 No, 1.pp. 198-242. Baghdad.
• Saied, Sazan Zaire. (2013). The Significance and Delicacy of Derivational Affixes in Producing New Words. Haji Hashim Printing- House: Hawler.
• Sapir, Edward. (1921). Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. Rupert Hart-Davis .
• Schneider, Klaus P. (2003). Diminutives in English. Max Niemeyer Verilog.
• Stageberg, Norman C. (1971). An Introductory English Grammar .New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
• Trask, R. L. (1993). A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics. New York: Rout ledge.
• Wahby, T. (1929). Dasturi Zimabi Kurdi. (The Usage the Kurdish Grammar), Vol. 1, Baghdad.
• Wahby, T. and Edmond C. J. (1966). Kurdish – English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
• Wierzbicka, Anna. (1985b). Different Cultures, Different Languages, Different Speech Acts. Polish vs. English. - In Journal of Pragmatics 9, 145-178.
• --------------- . (2003). Cross - Cultural Pragmatics: the Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter .
• Zamdar, M. (1989). Nawu Naznawu Nawu Natore La Zmani Kurdi . Hawler :Wazarati Roshanbiri Press .
• Zanvoort, Reinard W. (1969). A Handbook of English Grammar. 11th ed. Groningen: Wolters –Noordhoff.
Copyright (c) 2019 Hamza Othman Muho
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation