Collaborative English Language Learning in Primary School: a Sequential Explanatory Study in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

  • Suleyman esat Suleyman Ishik University-Erbil
Keywords: Cooperative Learning, English Language, integrative work, primary school, student centered education


This study was aimed to investigate whether implementing the Cooperative Learning approach increase the target language use, improve communication skills, build confidence and stimulate individualized learning in primary school classes. To obtain the research aim and questions, a sequential explanatory mixed method was designed between two groups of primary sixth-grade students in Private Ronaki Hawler, where the medium of instruction was English. An experimental and control group classes were taught by the same teacher and at the end of the study, an interview was conducted with the volunteer students in terms of understanding their development in English Level. The results of the study showed that the experimental group who were taught with the cooperative learning strategies performed a significant success in their examinations. Students’ ideas and understanding of working with the other students also supported the results of the quantitative data results.


Al-Hamash, K., & Ra'ad, A. (2007). The New English Course for Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: Ministry of Education

Borg, S. (2016). English Medium Instruction in Iraqi Kurdistan: Perspectives from Lecturers at State Universities. British Council, Iraq. Erbil: British Council.

Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Pearson.

Brumfit, C. J. (1984). Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching: The Role of Fluency and Accuracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, and Utilization. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Byrd, A.H. (2009). Learning to learn cooperatively. English Teaching Forum, 4, p. 18-28.

Cohen, E. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, p. 1-35.

Collins, A.W. (1984). Development During Middle Childhood: The Years From Six to Twelve. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Duxbury, J.G. & Tsai, L.-L. (2010). The effect of Cooperative Learning on foreign language anxiety: A comparative study of Taiwanese and American Universities. International Journal of Instruction, 3, 1, p. 3-18.

Farhad M.R. (2015). English teachers’ perceptions towards using the English cultural elements in English language classes in northern Iraq: Duhok province as a sample. International Journal of Science and Research, 4, 7, p. 1736-1741.

Fullan, M. (Ed.). (2009). The Challenge of Change (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Gillies, R. (2014). Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 3, 2, p. 125-140.

Harel, Y. (1992). Teacher talk in the Cooperative Learning classroom. In C. Kessler (Ed.), Cooperative Language Learning: A Teacher's Resource Book (p. 153-162). Englewood Cliff, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Jacobs, J.M. & Ward, C. (2000). Analysing student-student interaction from Cooperative Learning and systemic functional perspectives. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 4, 4. Retrieved March 16, 2017 from

Jiang, D. (2016). An empirical study on alleviating career English writing anxiety through Cooperative Learning in a Chinese Polytechnic Institute. International Journal of Higher Education, 5, 1, p. 173-182.

Johnson, D.W & Johnson, R. (2005). New Developments in Social
Interdependence Theory. Genetic, Social, & General Psychology Monographs, 131, 4, p. 285-358.

Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R. T. (1999a). What makes Cooperative Learning work.
In D. Kluge, S. McGuire, D. W. Johnson, & R. T. Johnson, R.T. (Eds.), Cooperative Learning, p. 23-26. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.

Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (1999b). Making Cooperative Learning work. Theory into Practice, 38, 2, p. 67–73.

Kessler, C. (1992). Cooperative Language Learning: A Teacher’s Resource Book. Englewood Cliffs:Prentice Hall.

Khosravi, S., Javad Rezaee, M., Amir sheikh Ahmad, S., & Agajanzade, M. (2015).
The effect of motivation on young Kurdish learner on the learning English
speaking as Iran. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 9, 3, p. 142-155.

Larsen-Freeman, D. &. (2011). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Liang, X., Mohan, B. A., & Early, M. (1998). Issues of Cooperative Learning in ESL classes: A literature review. TESL Canada Journal, 15 (2), p. 13-23.

Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (2004). Second Language Learning Theories (2nd ed.). London: Hodder Arnold.

Murray, F. (1994). Why Understanding the Theoretical Basis of Cooperative Learning Enhances Teaching Success. . Baltimore: P. H. Brooke’s.

Olsen, R. E.–B., & Kagan, S. (1992). About cooperative learning. In C. Kessler (Ed.), Cooperative Language Learning: A Teacher’s Resource Book (p. 1-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rarick, C., Winter, G., Barczyk, C., & Merkt, E. (2014). Iraqi and Kurdish Cultural Values in the Semi- Autonomous State of Kurdistan. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management, 14 (3). Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Richards, J. (2004). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sharan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning and the teacher. In S. Sharan (Ed.), The Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods, (p. 336-348). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Slavin, R. (2001). Cooperative learning and intergroup relations. In J. Banks, & C. Banks. Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sofi-Karim, M. (2015). English Language Teaching in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. St. Louis: Webster University.

Taqi, A. (2008). The Cultural Learning Needs for Iraqi Students of English. University of Salahaddin. Erbil: Unpublished.
How to Cite
Suleyman S. Collaborative English Language Learning in Primary School: a Sequential Explanatory Study in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. JAHS [Internet]. 20Apr.2019 [cited 20Sep.2020];23(2):254 -267. Available from: