Investigating the Association between Psychological Well-being and Hope among the IDPs in Erbil
There is a growing body of research investigating the relationships between well-being and hope. This study outlines and details work conducted to understand the relationship between the components of psychological well-being and hope among the Internally Displaced People (IDPs)who live under stressful conditions. Ryff’s eudaimonic model of well-being across six components was profiled with the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS) (Snyder et al, 1991) measure. Three hundred and fifty individuals were selected from the refugee camps in Erbil from both genders ( 184 male, 166 female) aged between (18-64 years). For collecting the data, self-reported questionnaires. The results of the research sample show significantly high levels of hope and psychological well-being. Importantly, these findings reveal the significant role played by positive relationships between hope components and psychological well-being dimensions, all components show a large effect size. Linear multiple regression analysis suggests that agency and pathway with others predict unique variance in four components of psychological wellbeing, that are Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in life, and Self-Acceptance after controlling for some demographic variables. To identify the differences between hope components, the results show that females recorded a higher level of hope agency components than males. Also, results show that females recorded higher levels of two psychological well-being components that are Autonomy, and Personal Growth than males. In light of the findings, this study illustrates the importance of agency and pathway components of hope to improve greater psychological well-being in predicting mental health states.
Burke, R. J., & Weir, T. (1978). Sex differences in adolescent life stress, social support, and well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 98(2), 277-288.
Burns, R. A., & Machin, M. A. (2009). Investigating the structural validity of ryff’s psychological well-being scales across two samples. Social Indicators Research, 93(2), 359-375. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9329-1
Chen, F. F., Jing, Y., Hayes, A., & Lee, J. M. (2013). Two concepts or two approaches? A bifactor analysis of psychological and subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 1033-1068. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9367-x
Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 40(1-2), 189-216.
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics 23 step by step: A simple guide and reference Routledge.
Hasnain, N., Wazid, S., & Hasan, Z. (2014). Optimism, hope, and happiness as correlates of psychological well-being among young adult assamese males and females. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(2), 44-51.
Keyes, C. L., Myers, J. M., & Kendler, K. S. (2010). The structure of the genetic and environmental influences on mental well-being. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2379-2384.
Keyes, C. L., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1687
Lindfors, P., & Lundberg, U. (2002). Is low cortisol release an indicator of positive health? Stress and Health, 18(4), 153-160. doi:10.1002/smi.942
Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Mitchell, J. (2013). The role of hope, spirituality and religious practice in adolescents’ life satisfaction: Longitudinal findings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 251-261.
McGrath, R. E., & Meyer, G. J. (2006). When effect sizes disagree: The case of r and d. Psychological Methods, 11(4), 386. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.11.4.386
Pollard, E. L., & Lee, P. D. (2003). Child well-being: A systematic review of the literature. Social Indicators Research, 61(1), 59-78.
Rawdin, B., Evans, C., & Rabow, M. W. (2013). The relationships among hope, pain, psychological distress, and spiritual well-being in oncology outpatients. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 16(2), 167-172.
Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., & Cunha, M. P. E. (2012). Retail employees' self-efficacy and hope predicting their positive affect and creativity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 21(6), 923-945.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141-166. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141
Ryff, C. D. (1989a). Beyond ponce de leon and life satisfaction: New directions in quest of successful ageing. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 12(1), 35-55. doi:10.1177/016502548901200102
Ryff, C. D. (1989b). Happiness is everything, or is it? explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1249
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999
Ryff, C. D. (2014). Psychological well-being revisited: Advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 10-28. doi:10.1159/000353263 [doi]
Ryff, C. D., Love, G. D., Urry, H. L., Muller, D., Rosenkranz, M. A., Friedman, E. M., . . . Singer, B. (2006). Psychological well-being and ill-being: Do they have distinct or mirrored biological correlates? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75(2), 85-95. doi:10.1159/000090892
Seligman, M. E. (2004). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfilment Simon and Schuster.
Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications Academic press.
Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., . . . Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570.
Springer, K. W., & Hauser, R. M. (2006). An assessment of the construct validity of ryff’s scales of psychological well-being: Method, mode, and measurement effects. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1080-1102. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2005.07.004
Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysis of hope as a psychological strength. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 393-406.
Weiss, D., & Lang, F. R. (2009). Thinking about my generation: Adaptive effects of a dual age identity in later adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 24(3), 729.
Copyright (c) 2019 Izaddin Ahmad Aziz, Sumaya Sami Hassan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation