The Destiny of Humanity in the Future Cities of Ray Bradbury

  • Sokar Musleh Sleman Department of English – College of languages/ Salahaddin University-Erbil
  • Ismail Muhammad Fahmi, Assistant Professor Department of English – College of languages/ Salahaddin University-Erbil
Keywords: Future, Humanity, War, Science, Technology

Abstract

          The current study is an attempt to show Ray Bradbury’s (1920-2012) visions concerning the destiny of humanity in the future cities. To achieve this goal, the study uses psychobiography as the theory, to find evidence from his biography and link it to his literary creativity. In his fiction, Bradbury speculates a future where humanity is doomed either by successive wars and atomic bombs or by the excessive use of science and technology. Therefore, this study takes two of Bradbury’s stories as instances to demonstrate his visions and predictions, which are: There Will Come Soft Rains (1950) and The Pedestrian (1951). Furthermore, it examines Bradbury’s personal life to reveal why he wrote and speculated in such a way. Finally, the study ends with a conclusion in which the major findings will be summed up.

 

Keywords: Future, Humanity, War, Science, Technology.

References

Abrams, M. H. & Harpham, G. G. (2009) A Glossary of Literary Terms. 9th ed. Boston, Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Anderson, J. W. (1981) The Methodology of Psychological Biography. Journal of interdisciplinary History, 11(3), PP. 455-475.
Bradbury, R. (1979) The Martian Chronicles. New York, Bantam Books.
Bradbury, R. (1966) Twice Twenty-Two. Doubleday, New York.
Cuddon, J. A. (2013) A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. 5th ed. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
D’Ammassa, D. (2005) Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York, Facts On File, Inc.
Dominianni, R. (1984) Ray Bradbury’s 2026: A Year with Current Values. The English Journal, 73(7), PP. 49-51.
Eller, J. R. (2011) Becoming Ray Bradbury. Chicago, University of Illinois Press.
Eller, J. R. (2013) Miracles of Rare Device: Bradbury and the American Southwest. In: McMillan, G. (ed) Orbiting Ray Bradbury’s Mars: Biographical, Anthropological, Literary, Scientific, and other Perspectives. McFarland & Company, London, PP. 11-23.
Elms, A. C. (2007) Psychobiography and Case Study Methods. In: Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C. & Krueger, R. F. (eds) Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology. New York, The Guilford Press, PP. 97-113.
Fouche, P. & Niekerk, R.V. (2010) Academic Psychobiography in South Africa: past, present and future. South Africa Journal of Psychology, 40(4), PP. 495-507.
Grimsley, J. (1970) The Martian Chronicles: A Provocative Study. The English Journal, 59(9), PP. 1239-1242.
Harlow, M. (2005) Martian Legacy: Ray Bradbury’s The Martian Chronicles. War, Literature & Arts: An International Journal of the Huma, 17(1/2), PP. 311-314.
Hoskinson, K. (2001), Ray Bradbury’s Cold War Novels, In: Bloom, H. (ed) Modern Critical Views: Ray Bradbury. New York, Infobase Publishing, PP. 125-139.
Johnson, W. L. (2001) The Martian Chronicles and Other Mars Stories, In: Bloom, H. (ed) Modern Critical Views: Ray Bradbury. New York, Infobase Publishing, PP. 29-38.
Jonas, G. (2012) Ray Bradbury, Who Brought Mars to Earth with a Lyrical Mastery, Dies at 91. [Online] Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/07/books/ray-bradbury-popularizer-of-science-fiction-dies-at-91.html [Accessed 17th July 2019].
Kovary, Z. (2011) Psychobiography as a Method. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 7(4), PP. 739-777.
Manis, J. G. (1994) What Should Biographers Tell?: The Ethics of Telling Lives. Biography, 17(4), PP. 386-395.
McNelly, W. E. & Stupple, A. J. (1976) Two Views: I. Ray Bradbury-Past, Present, and Future, II. The Past, The Future, and Ray Bradbury, In: Clareson, T. & Wymer, T. (eds) Voices for the Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers. Bowling Green, Popular Press, PP. 167-184.
Mengeling, M. E. (1971) Ray Bradbury’s Dandelion Wine: Themes, Sources, and Style. The English Journal, 60(7), PP. 877-887.
Patrouch, J. (1988) Symbolic Setting in Science Fiction: H. G. Wells, Ray Bradbury, and Harlan Ellison. Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts, 1(3), PP. 37-45.
Ponterotto, J. G. (2015) Psychobiography in Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25(5), PP. 379-389.
Pringle, D. (2012) Ray Bradbury Obituary. [Online] Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/jun/06/ray-bradbury [Accessed 17th July 2019].
Schultz, W. T. (ed.). (2005) Handbook of Psychobiography. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Schultz, W. T. & Lawrence, S. (2017) Psychobiography: Theory and Method. American Psychologist, 72(5), PP. 434-445.
Wilson, K. (ed). (1997) Short Stories for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context & Criticism on Commonly Studied Short Stories, Vol. 1. Farmington Hills, Gale.
Weller, S. (2005) The Bradbury Chronicles. New York, Harper Collins.
Published
2020-02-20
How to Cite
1.
Sleman S, Fahmi I. The Destiny of Humanity in the Future Cities of Ray Bradbury. JAHS [Internet]. 20Feb.2020 [cited 8Jul.2020];24(1):278 -28. Available from: http://zancojournals.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/3192
Section
Articles