Genetic Relationship and Similarity of Some Chicken Strains


Blood samples were collected from the four chicken strain (twenty males and twenty females). (Ross, Indian River as meat type and,  ISA Brown, Hy Line Brown as egg type chicken ) . Blood samples were collected in 3 ml tubes containing EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted from 300 μl of blood. DNA purity and concentrations have been measured by Nano Drop® spectrophotometer. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was done by using 35 primers from GenScript USA company. A total of 21 Primers gave results to find a complementary DNA Genomic sites. The PCR program included an initial denaturation step at 94 °C for 5 minutes followed by 40 cycles with 94 °C for 1 minutes for DNA denaturation, annealing as mentioned with each primer, extension at 72 °C for 1 minutes and final extension at 72  °C for 5 minute were carried out. The PCR products were tested with electrophoresis on 2 % agarose gels in 1x TBE buffer stained by Ethidium bromide.  The amplified pattern was visualized on a UV trans and photographed .Statistical Analysis of RAPD bands were scored for their presence (1) or absence (0). The index of similarity between each two population’s genetic distances was calculated. Polymorphism of each primer was calculated. The highest number of bands was 134 bands among all groups used and which was created by the OPA-13 Primer, and the lowest number of bands was 5 bands, which was created by OPA-03 Primer. The total number of bands created by all the Primers was 1724 and the total number of polymorphic band created by all the Primers was 216. The Primer OPQ-O4 had the highest number of polymorphic bands being 18 bands. While the Primer OPA-15 possessed the lowest number of polymorphic band being 2 bands. The average number was 12.77 of polymorphic bands per primer. The highest percentage of the Polymorphisms observed in the primer OPA-19, was 29.09% when compared with other primers in this study, where the lowest percentage of Polymorphisms was of primer of OPA-15 being 4.55%. A high level of genetic similarity was also observed between the meat type chickens and it was 0.741 between Ross ♀ and Indian ♀. A low level of genetic similarity was also observed between the meat and eggs chickens being 0.587 between Ross ♀ and ISA ♀.


Ahmed AB, Mohamed AM, Mahmoud AO (2003). Relationship between genetic similarity and some productive traits in local chicken strains. A fr J Biotechnol. 2: 46-47
Ali, B.A. and M.M.M. Ahmed, (2001). Random amplified polymorphic DNA in some chicken strains. In: Proceeding of the Congress of Role of Biochemistry in Environment and Agriculture. Part I, p. 23-31. 6th–8th February, Cairo Univ., Cairo, Egypt.
Ali, B.A.,(2003)a. Detection of DNA alteration in abnormal phenotype of broiler chicken male by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2: 153-156.
Ali, B.A., Ahmed, M.M.M., & Aly, O.M. (2003). Relationship between genetic similarity and some productive traits in local chicken strains. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2, 46-47.
Bagley, M.J.; Anderson, S.L.; and May, B. (2001) Choice of methodology for assessing genetic impacts of environmental stressors: polymorphism and reproducibility of RAPD and AFLP fingerprints. Ecotoxicology 10: 239-244.
Beutler, E., Gelbar, T . Aand Kuhl , W . (1990). Interfrence of heparin with the polymerase chain reaction . Bio Techniques 9,166.
Bibi, S., M.U. Dahot, I.A. Khan, A. Khatri and M. H. Naqvi (2009)" Study of genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers", Pak. J. Bot., 41(3):1023-1027.
Bowditch B.M., Albright D.G., Williams J.G. and Braun M.J. (1993): Use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in comparative genome studies. Methos Enzymol. 224: 294-309.
Feral, J.P. (2002): How useful is the genetic markers in attempts to understand and manage marine biodiversity. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 268: 121-145.
Holsinger, K.E.; Lewis, P.O. and Dey, D.K. (2002) A Bayesian approach to inferring population structure from dominant markers. Mol. Ecol., 11: 1157-1164.
Monira K.N., Islam, M.N., Khatun, R. and Ahmed, S. (2011). Genetic relationship and similarity of some selected chicken strains Journal of Bangladesh Agriculture University, 217-220.
Notter, D.R. (1999). The importance of genetic diversity in livestock populations of the future. Journal of Animal Science, 77, 61-69.
Pirany, N., Ramanov, M.N., Ganpule, S.P., Devegowda, G., & Prasad, D.T. (2007). Microsatellite analysis of chicken diversity in India chicken populations. The Journal of Poultry Science, 44, 19-28.
Rahimi, G.; Khanahmadi, A.; Nejati-Javaremi, A. and Smailkhanian, S. (2005). Evaluation of genetic variability in a breeder flock of native chicken based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 3 (4): 231-234.
Rahsan I, Guldehen B (2002). Estimation of genetic distance in meat and layer pure lines using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 26: 1117-1120.
Sharma, D., Appa Rao, K.B., Singh, R.V., & Totey, S.M. (2001). Genetic diversity among chicken breeds estimated through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Animal Biotechnology, 12, 111-120.
Shen, X.J., Ito, S., Mizutani, M., & Yamamoto, Y. (2002). Phylogenetic analysis in chicken breeds inferred from complete cytochrome b gene information. Biochemical Genetics, 40, 129-141.
Singh RV, Sharma D (2002). Within and between strain genetic variability in white Leghorn population detected through RAPD markers. Brit Poult Sci. 43: 33-37
Stepniak E.; Zagalska M. and Switonski M. (2002). Use of RAPD technique in evolution studies of four species in the family Canidae. J Appl Genet. 43: 489-499.
Williams J.G.K.; Kubbelik A.R.; Livak K.J.; Rafalski J.A. and Tingey S.V. (1990). DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acid Res., 18, 6531-6535.
Zhang, X., Leung, F.C., Chan, D.K.O., Yang, G., & Wu, C. (2002). Genetic diversity of Chinese native chicken breeds based on protein polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, and microsatellite polymorphism. Journal of Poultry Science, 81, 1463-1472.
How to Cite
“Genetic Relationship and Similarity of Some Chicken Strains”. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 28, no. 5, Nov. 2016, pp. 78-83, doi:10.21271/zjpas.v28i5.1174.