Main Article Content
floriculture, pollinators, flower visiting insects.
The abundance of flowervisiting insects from floricultural plantswere investigated at two different sites within Erbil Province- Kurdistan region-Iraq using four different colored pan traps (yellow, white, blue and red). Five insect orders were reported with sixteen insect families. The order Hymenoptera was the most abundant insect order recovered followed by the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Homoptera and Orthoptera respectively. The color of pant trap affected the abundance of flower visiting insects at both study sites mainly the family Apidae. The highest number of flower visiting insects was observed in yellow traps followed bywhite, blue and red traps respectively suggesting that the majority of flower visiting insects are attracted to yellow pan traps which could be an effective method for sampling and monitoring flower visiting insects mainly Apidaeinthis type of habitat.
2. Boiteau, G. (1990). Effect of trap color and size on relative efficiency of water-pan traps for sampling alate aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on potato. Journal of economic entomology, 83, 937-942.
3. Britanica, (2016). Floriculture. [Online]. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/science/floriculture (accessed 02/10/2016).
4. Campbell, J. W. & Hanula, J. (2007). Efficiency of Malaise traps and colored pan traps for collecting flower visiting insects from three forested ecosystems. Journal of Insect Conservation, 11, 399-408.
5. Gollan, J. R., Ashcroft, M. B. & Batley, M. (2011). Comparison of yellow and white pan traps in surveys of bee fauna in New South Wales, Australia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Australian Journal of Entomology, 50, 174-178.
6. Gonçalves, R. B., Santos, E. F. & Scott-Santos, C. F. (2012). Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae sl) captured with Malaise and pan traps along an altitudinal gradient in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Check List, 8, 053-056.
7. Laubertie, E., Wratten, S. &Sedcole, J. (2006). The role of odour and visual cues in the pan‐trap catching of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 148, 173-178.
8. Noordijk, J., Delille, K., Schaffers, A. P. & Sýkora, K. V. (2009). Optimizing grassland management for flower-visiting insects in roadside verges. Biological Conservation, 142, 2097-2103.
9. Kleijn, D. & Van Langevelde, F. (2006). Interacting effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects in agricultural landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology, 7, 201-214.
10. Kremer, C., Chaplin-Kramer, R., (2007). Insects as providers of ecosystem services: crop pollination and pest control. In: Stewart, A.J.A., New, T.R., Lewis, O.T. (Eds.), Insect Conservation Biology. CABI, Wallingford, pp. 349–382.
11. Krenn, H. W., Plant, J. D. & Szucsich, N. U. 2005. Mouthparts of flower-visiting insects. Arthropod Structure & Development, 34, 1-40.
12. Ramírez-Freire, L., Flores, G. J. A., Barajas, R. A., Martínez, H. Q. & Macías, C. G. V. (2012). The large carpenter bees (hymenoptera: apidae: xylocopa spp.) of nuevo león, méxico. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 7, 1-4
13. Rathcke, B. J. 1993. Habitat fragmentation and plant—pollinator. Current Science, 65, 273-277.
14. Sadeghi Namaghi, H. & Husseini, M. (2010). The effects of collection methods on species diversity of family Syrphidae (Diptera) in Neyshabur, Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 11, 521-526.
15. Steffan-Dewenter, I., Münzenberg, U., Bürger, C., Thies, C. &Tscharntke, T. 2002. Scale‐dependent effects of landscape context on three pollinator guilds. Ecology, 83, 1421-1432.
16. Vrdoljak, S. M. & Samways, M. J. (2012). Optimising coloured pan traps to survey flower visiting insects. Journal of Insect Conservation, 16, 345-354.
17. Wilson, J. S., Griswold, T. & Messinger, O. J. (2008). Sampling bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in a desert landscape: are pan traps sufficient? Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 81, 288-300.