Additional Records of Freshwater Shrimp (Malacostraca: Crustacea) from Greater Zab River and Their Banks, Iraq

Yahya A. Shekha, Luay A. Ali, Jamal K. Mohammed Amin, Shamal A. Abdullah, Atheer H. Ali


Physicochemical and biological samples in two artificial sand mine ponds and Greater Zab River were collected during July to December 2015, in order to evaluate water quality of these studied ecosystems and their effect on existing of two freshwater shrimps, Mysis relicta which was recorded and described as a new record for Iraqi fauna while Macrobrachium nipponense was recorded in southern part of Iraq before more than decades but it regarded as new record in the northern part of Iraq (Kurdistan region). Results showed that pH values were in alkaline side of neutrality, EC in pond 1 was higher than other two sites, dissolved oxygen did not fall under 5 mg.l-1 and BOD5 values were high and not suitable for drinking purpose. Sources of nutrient in the studied sites comes from runoff and domestic discharge. . Mysis relicta characterized by living in cooled, well aerated ecosystem, but in the present study we found it in ponds with water temperature over 20 °C and oxygen content less than 9 5 mg.l-1.


Sand mine, water quality, Greater Zab River, freshwater shrimps, new record

Full Text:



AKINDELE, E. O.; ADENIYI, I. F. & INDABAWA, I. I. 2013. Spatio- temporal assessment and water quality characteristics of Lake Tiga, Kano, Nigeria. Research J. of Environmental and Earth Science. 5(2). p.67- 77.

ALI, L.A. 2010. Seasonal variation in physico- chemical properties and zooplankton biomass in Greater Zab River- Iraq. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 3(3). p.115- 120.

APHA (AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION). 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Ed., APHA, 1015, 15th. Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.

ASHRAF, M. A.; MAAH, M. J.; YUSOFF, I.; WAJID, A. & MAHMOOD, K. 2011. Sand mining effects, causes and concerns: A case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific Research and Essays. 6(6). p.1216-1231.

BROPHY, J. T. & PENK, M. R. 2008. A new record for Mysis relicta Lovén, 1862 from Lough Allen, Co. Leitrim. Irish Naturalists Journal. 29(2). p.122-124.

CAI, Y. & DAI, Y. 1999. Freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the Xishuangbanna region of Yunnan Province, Southern China. Hydrobiologia. 400. p.211-241.

CAI, Y. & NG, P. K. L. 2002. The freshwater palaemonid prawns of Myanmar (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea). Hydrobiologia. 487. p.59-83.

DADSWELL, M. J. 1974. Distribution, ecology and postglacial dispersal of certain crustaceans and fishes in eastern North America. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Zool. 11.

DODDS, W. K. & WHILES, M. R. 2010. Freshwater ecology: Concepts and environmental applications of limnology. 2nd Ed. Elsevier Inc., USA. 811pp.

EDMENSON, W. T. 1959. Freshwater biology. Johan Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2nd Ed., 1248 pp.

GLEDHILL, T.; SUTDLIFFE, D. W. & WILLIAMS, W. D. 1993. British freshwater Crustacea: Malacostraca- a key with ecological notes. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication 52.

GRAVE, S. D. & GHANE, A. 2006. The establishment of the Oriental River Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense (de Haan, 1849) in Anzali Lagoon, Iran. Aquatic Invasions. 1(4). p.204-208.

HORPPILA, J.; LILJENDAHL-NURMINEN, A.; MALINEN, T.; SALONEN, M.; TUOMAALA, A.; UUSITALO, L. & VINNI, M. 2003. Mysis relicta in a eutrophic lake: Consequences of obligatory habitat shifts. Limnol. Oceanogr., 48(3). p.1214–1222.

JUN, Y.; YONGYU, Z.; LEMAIN, L.; CHANGFU, W. & XIAOQING, Y. 2012. Microbial Community and Urban Water Quality. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 26(1). p.76- 83.

LAMPERT, W. & SOMMER, U. 2007. Limnoecology: The ecology of lakes and streams. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press. 324pp.

LASENBY, D. C. & LANGFORD, R. R. 1973. Feeding assimilation of Mysis relicta. Limnology and Oceanography. 18. p.280-285.

MAGNA, V. E.; AGYINGI, C. M. & DIJIETO- LORDON, A. E. 2013. In- channel sand extraction in River Mungo, Cameroon: Nature effects and concern. 6th International Conference on Water Resources and Environmental Research. Koblenz- Germany.

MIGUEL-CHINCHILLA, L.; BOIX, D.; GASCON, S. & COMIN, F. A. 2014. Macroinvertebrate biodiversity patterns during primary succession in manmade ponds in north-eastern Spain. Journal Limnology. 73(3). p.428-440.

MOHAMMED AMIN, J. K. & SHEKHA, Y. A. 2016. Environmental impacts of sand and gravel mining on water quality and biodiversity in Kalak Sub-District. Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 28 (5). p.281-192.

OˈSULLIVAN, P. E. & REYNOLDS, C. S. 2004. Limnology and limnetic ecology. Blackwell Publishing Company. 699pp.

PEREIRA, K. & RATNAYAKA, R. 2013. Pereira, K. and Ratnayake, R. (2013). Water integrity in action: Curbing illegal sand mining in Sri Lanka. Water Integrity Network.

SALMAN, S. D.; PAGE, T. J.; NASER, M. D. & YASSER, A. G. 2006. The invasion of Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849)(Caridea: Palaemonidae) into the Southern Iraqi marshes. Aquatic Invasions. 1. p.109-115.

SHEKHA Y. A. & AL-ABAYCHI, J. K. 2013. Assessment of monthly variation of two water bodies in Erbil governorate. Journal of University of Zakho. 1(A) 1. p.434-444.

SHEKHA Y. A.; TOMA, J. J. & ISMAEL, H. M. 2017. Study of algae and fungi interaction in some artificial open sand mine ponds in Kalak subdistrict- Duhok, Iraq. Diyala Journal for Pure Science. 13(2). p. 109- 131.

SHEKHA, Y. A. 2016. Evaluation of water quality for Greater Zab River by principal component analysis/ factor analysis. Iraqi Journal of Science. 57 (4B). p.2650-2663.

SHEKHA,, Y. A. 2009. Abiotic Factors and Their Influences on Phytoplankton Density in Greater Zab River (Khabat subdistrict-Erbil, Iraq). Zanco J. of Pure and Applied Sciences. 21(2). p.71- 80.

SHERMAN, R. K.; LASENBY, D. C. & HOLLETT, L. 1987. Influence of oxygen concentration on the distribution of Mysis relicta Loven in a eutrophic lake. Can. J. Zool. 65. p.2646-2650.

SMITH, D. G. 2001. Pennak’s freshwater invertebrates of the United States. John Wiely and Sons, Inc. USA. 638pp.

SMITH, W. E. 1970. Tolerance of Mysis relicta to thermal shock and light. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 99. p.418–422.

SONI, A. K.; MISHRA, B. & SINGH, S. 2014. Pit lakes as an end use of mining: A review. Journal of Mining and Environment. 5(2). p. 99- 111.

SOOMETS, E.; RANNAP, R. & LOHMUS, A. 2016. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management. PLOS ONE. 11(7).

WELCH, E. B.; JACOBY, J. M. & LINDELL, T. 2004. Pollutant Effects in Freshwater: Applied Limnology. 3rd Ed. Spon Press. USA. 504pp

Copyright (c) 2017 ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (print version: ISSN 2218-0230 online version: ISSN 2412-3986, DOI: 10.21271) is published by Salahaddin University-Erbil / Department of Scientific Publications. Responsibility for the contents rests upon the authors and not upon  Salahaddin University-Erbil or the Journal Editorial and Advisory Boards. 

Department of Scientific Publication Office: The Central Library of Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. Cell Phone: +964 (0)750 7761675, email:,

Copyright and Reprint Permission: It is the policy of ZANCO to own the copyright to the technical contributions it publishes and to facilitate the appropriate reuse of this material by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit to the source for individuals for individual use.

Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved. Salahaddin University-Erbil