Phytotherapeutics: As anticipating substitutes to synthetic drugs in combating antinematicidal-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants

  • Kareem Khoshnaw Hamad Department of Biology, College of science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Sherwan Tayib Ahmed Department of Biology, College of science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Rezan Kamal Ahmed Department of Biology, College of science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Qaraman Mamakhidr Koyee Department of Biology, College of science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Medicinal plants, synthetic anthelmintics, alimentary tract nematodes, antinematicidal resistance, small ruminants


The plant kingdom embraces a plethora of various phytomedicines which have been exploited for thousands of years by conventional pastoralists, herbalists and healers as a part of ethno-veterinary medicine against livestock nematodiasis.  The role of medicinal plants has been diminished after the marketing of synthetic thiabendazole (first generation of benzimidazole group) in 1961. Virtually, the magnitude of herbal medicines has been substantiated again in recent decades due to the rapid emergence of antinematicidal resistance among the parasitic nematode populations as a result of discriminate use of the synthetic chemotherapeutics worldwide. Furthermore, other promoted alternatives viz. biological control, immunization, grazing management, nutritional supplements and genetic approaches have not been commercialized yet due to some practical bottlenecks. In this article, the significance of medicinal botanicals and the performed studies in the field of phytotherapy toward antinematicidal-resistant alimentary tract nematodes parasitized ovine and caprine have been reviewed elaborately


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How to Cite
Hamad, K., Ahmed, S., Ahmed, R. and Koyee, Q. (2018) “Phytotherapeutics: As anticipating substitutes to synthetic drugs in combating antinematicidal-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 30(4), pp. 102-114. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.30.4.12.