Main Article Content
broiler chicken meat heavy metals public health impact.
The present work was conducted to evaluate the quality of frozen chicken imported to Iraq regarding the heavy metal content of six elements Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Zinc (Zn) and Lead (Pb) in ppm were determined in three different body parts i.e. breast, wing and thighs of Brazilian and Turkish origins. These heavy metals were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The contents were compared with the internationally allowed levels for safety reasons. However, Iron, Manganese, Magnesium, Calcium have been within the range, the Zn and Pb have exceeded the internationally allowed limits by WHO in Brazilian chicken. Both wing and thigh muscles, especially in Brazilian revealed higher proportion of Zn than permissible limits (10-50 ppm) which was allowed by ANZFA in comparison with other breast tissues. Chicken of Turkey is reported to be safer than that of Brazil. People are better to utilize domestic chicken rather than the imported one as it could be contaminated with heavy metals that come from commercially-produced foods.
Assessment of trace metals content in chicken (Gallus gallus
domesticus) and Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) Tissues From
Selangor (Malaysia). J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 5: 441-451.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry [ATSDR] (2004).
Division of Toxicology. Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA, USA. Also
available at: http://www.astdr.Cdc.gov/toxprofiles/
Alturiqi AS, Albedair LA (2012). The Egyp. J. Aqu. Res.; 38(1): 45-49.
Becking GC, Chen BH (1998). International Programme on Chemical
Safety (IPCS) environmental health criteria on boron human health
risk assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 66(1-3): 439-452.
Blanco-Penedojl; Bene-ditto RF, Shore M, Miranda M, Garcia V, Lopez-
Alonso M (2009). Influence of farm type (organic, conventional and
intensive) on toxic metal accumulation in calves in NW Spain. Agron
. Res. 7: 578-584.
Burger J, Veitch CR, Gochfeld M (1994). Location differences in metal
Concentration feathers of Australian Gannet (Morus serrator) in
new Zealand. Environ. Monit. Assess. , 32: 47-57.
Commission of the European Communities (2001). Commission
regulation (EC). 2002. No.466 setting maximum levels for certain
contamination in foodstuffs. J. Eur. Commun. Brussels, Belgium.
Demirbas A (1999). Evaluation of biomass materials as energy sources:
Upgrading of tea waste by briquetting process. Energy
Sources; 21(3): 215-220.
Demirezen D, Urue K (2006). Comparative study of trace elements in
certain fish meat and product. Meat. Sci. 74(2): 255-260.
Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC, Egwurugwu JN (2007). Heavy metal
pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int. J. Phy. Sci. 2(5): 112-118.
Also available online at: http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPS.
Duncan DB (1955). Multiple range and Multiple F ted. Biometric. 11: 1-42.
Food Safety and inspection Service [FSIS] (2004). Total Diet Study of
12 elements - Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper,
Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium, Tin, and Zinc. Food
survey information sheets 48/04. Also available at:
Hamasalim HJ, Mohammed HN (2013). Determination of heavy metals
in exposed corned beef and chicken luncheon that sold in
sulaymaniah markets. African journal of Food Science. 7(7): 178-
Hassanin FS, Hassan MA, Mohmoud AM, Mohamed EA (2014). Heavy
metal residue in some chicken meat products. Benha Vet. Medical
journal 27(2): 256-263.
Hussain RT, Ebraheem MK, Moker HM (2012). Assessment of heavy
chicken available in the local markets of Basra city, Iraq. Bas. J. Vet.
Res. 11(1): 43-51.
Irfana M, Zubairi AB, Husain SJ (2004). Bronchiolitis obliterans
organizing pneumonia associated with cytomegalovirus infection in
a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Pak Med
Assoc. 54(6): 328-30.
Kanakaraju D, Jios CA, Long SM (2008). Heavy metal concentration in
the razor clam (Solen spp) from Muara Tebas, Sarawak. Malay. J
Anal. Sci. 12: 53-58.
Kirkpatrick DC, Coffin DE (2006). Cadmium, Lead and Mercury content
of various cured meats. J Sci. Food and Agric. 24(12): 1595-1598.
Krause's food and nutrition therapy (2008). 12th ed. Saunders Elsevier,
St. Louis, MS. Also available at: https://www.google.iq/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTFLevensen H, Barnard W (1988). Wastes in marine environments. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Cambridge , London .pp:123-126.
Pennington, De Planter Bowes and Nichols (1998). "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron." Office of Dietary Supplements. National Institutes of Health. Also available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/
factsheets/iron.asp 08-24-07; 17th ed. Philadelphia: JB Lipincott ,USA.
Santhi D, Balakrishnan V, Kalaikannan A, Radhakarishnan KT (2008).
Presence of heavy metals in pork products in cheunai (India). Am J
Food and Technol; 3(3): 192-199.
Sari A, Soylak M, Tuzen M, Uluozlu OD (2008). Biosorption of Pb(II)
and Cr(III) from aqueous solution by lichen (Parmelina tiliaceae)
biomass. Bioresour Technol; 99: 2972-2980.
Scan (2003). Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition: opinion of the
Undesirable Substances in feed. Also available at: hptt://Europaeu.
Schonfeldt HC, Gibson N (2008). Changes in the nutrient quality of
meat in an obesity context; Meat Sci., 80: 20-27.
Schwartz LD (1994). Poultry Health Hand Book. Sanitation and
Isolation for poultry. Penne Sylvania State University, USA.
Statistical Analysis System (SAS) (2002-2003). User's guide for person
computer. Release V.9.1 SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
WHO (1998). Environmental Health criteria IPCS. International program
of Chemical Safety.
Young RA (2005). Toxicity Profiles. Toxicity summery for Cadmium,
Risk Assessment Information System .University of Tennessee,
Nashville, TN, USA.