Statistical Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Characteristics in Different Countries

Main Article Content

Shuokr Qarani Aziz
Mohammed J.K. Bashir
Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Amin Mojiri
Salem S. Abu Amr
Yousif Isamial Maulood


Solid waste, landfill, leachate, SPSS, statistical analysis, characteristics


       This research was aimed to study municipal solid waste landfills leachate parameters for different sanitary landfill designs such as open dumping, anaerobic, and semi-aerobic with various ages in different countries. Landfill leachate characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, color, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biodegradability ratio, total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), iron (Fe) and phenols and the age of landfills were used for examining in the statistical analysis. Application of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for statistical analysis for the mentioned parameters was another goal for this work. Results showed that leachates parameters such as turbidity, color, NH3-N, BOD, COD, TSS, Fe, and phenols were surpassed the standard limits for disposal. SPSS results presented that strong correlation (r > 0.5 at P < 0.005) discovered amongst NH3-N with BOD/COD, TS, and TSS; between BOD/COD with TS and TSS; among TS with TSS, Fe, and EC, and amid Fe and EC. The age of landfills generally hadn’t important statistical correlation with the aforementioned landfill leachate parameters; merely color approached to have a correlation with age (r = - 0.986 at P = 0.054).

Abstract 86 | PDF Downloads 55


A practical Guide to Landfill Management in Pacific Island Countries. In: Inland- Based Waste Disposal, vol.1, (2005) Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

Abu Amr S., Aziz H. A, Aziz S. Q (2012) Effect of Ozone and Ozone/Fenton in the Advanced Oxidation Process on Biodegradable characteristics of Semi-aerobic Stabilized Leachate. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, 41(2): 148 -152.

Abu Amr S., Zakaria SNF, Aziz H. A (2016) Performance of combined Ozone and zirconium tetrachloride in stabilized landfill leachate treatment, Journal of Material cycles and waste management, 19(4): 1384-1390.

American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Aziz S. Q. (2011) Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Powdered Activated Carbon Augmented Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Process, PhD thesis, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia.

Aziz S. Q., Aziz H. A, Bashir M. J. K, Mojiri A. (2015) Assessment of various tropical municipal landfill leachate characteristics and treatment opportunities, Global NEST Journal, 17: 1-3.

Aziz S. Q., Aziz H. A, Yusoff M. S., Bashir M. J. K (2011) Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189: 404–413.

Aziz S. Q., Aziz H. A, Yusoff M. S., Bashir M. J. K, Umar M. (2010) Leachate characterization in semi-aerobic and anaerobic sanitary landfills: A comparative study. Journal of Environmental Management, 91: 2608-2614.

Aziz S. Q., Maulood Y. I (2015) Contamination Valuation of Soil and Groundwater Source at Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(12):155-165.

Aziz, S.Q., and Ali, S. M. (2017) Characteristics and potential treatment technologies for different kinds of wastewaters. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, In Press.

Bagchi A. (2004) Design, of landfills and integrated solid waste management. Third edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bashir M. J. K., Aziz H. A,Yusoff M. S, Aziz S. Q, Mohajeri S. (2010) Stabilized Sanitary Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Anionic Resin: Treatment Optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182: 115-122.

Bashir M. J. K.,, Xian T. M, Shehzad A., Sethupahi S., Aun N. C., Abu Amr S. (2016) Sequential treatment for landfill leachate by applying coagulation-adsorption process. Geosystem Engineering, 20 (1): 9-20.

Christensen T. H, Kjeldsen P., Albrechtsen H. J, Heron G., Nielsen P. H, Bjerg P. L, Holm P. E. (1994) Attenuation of landfill leachate pollutants in aquifers. Crift. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 24: 119.

DeCoursey, W.J. (2003)Statistics and Probability for Engineering Applications With Microsoft® Excel. Elsevier Science (USA). Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, ISBN: 0-7506-7618-3.

Environmental Quality (Control of Pollution from Solid Waste Transfer Station and Landfill) Regulations 2009, Malaysian Environmental Quality Act 1974 [Act 127].

Field A. (2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS, 3rd Edition, SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hilles H. A, Abu Amr S. S, Hussein R. A, Arafa A. I, El-Sebaie M. D (2016) Performance of combined sodium persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process in stabilized landfill leachate treatment, Journal of Environmental Management, 166: 493 – 498.
Idris A., Inank B., Hassan M. N. (2004) Overview of waste disposal and landfills/dumps in Asian countries. Journal of Materials Cycles and Waste Management, 6: 104–110.

Lee A. H, Nikraz H., Hung Y. T. (2010) Influence of Waste Age on Landfill Leachate Quality. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 1(4): 347-350.

Liermann T. A. (2009) Fiji Islands’ Naboro Landfill Leachate Quality Analysis and the Applicability of Developed versus Small Island Developing State Discharge Standards. M.Sc Thesis of Environmental Engineering. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY.

Matsufuji Y., Hanashima M., Nagano S., Tanaka A. (1993) Generation of greenhouse effect gases from different landfill type. Eng. Geol. 34, 181e197.

Maulood, Y.I. and Aziz, S. Q. (2016) Soil and Municipal Solid Waste Leachate Characterization at Erbil Anaerobic Landfill Site. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Vol. 28, No.3, 104-113.

Mojiri A., Aziz H. A, Ziyang L., Nanwen Z., Tajuddin R. M, Aziz S. Q, Dongdong G. (2015) Zeolite and activated carbon combined with biological treatment for metals removal from mixtures of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater, Global NEST Journal, 17(4): 727-737.

Ngo H. H, Guo W., Xing W. (2008) Applied technologies in municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), pp: 17.

Rajesh S., Babel K., Mishra S. K (2016). Reliability-Based Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Slope. J. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste, Article Number: 04016016-11.

Renou S., Givaudan G. J, Poulain S., Dirassouyan F., Moulin P. (2008) Landfill leachate treatment: review and opportunity, J. Hazard. Mater. 150: 468–493.

Shehzad A, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Sethupathi S., Lim J. (2016) Simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate using sea mango derived activated carbon via microwave induced activation. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 14, 991–1001.

Soong, T.T. (2004) Fundamentals of Probability and Statistics for Engineers. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England.

Tchobanoglous, G., and Kreith., F. (2002) Handbook of solid waste management. Second edition. Mcgraw-Hill, Library of Congress Cataloging–in-Publication Data.

UNEP. (2005) Solid Waste Management, (Volume I). pp 524.
Utts, J.M., and Heckard (2007) Mind on Statistics, 3rd edition. Thomson Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Thomson Learning WebTutor™ is a trademark of Thomson Learning, Inc.

Visvanathan C., Ben Aim R., Parameshwaran K. (2000) Membrane Separation Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 30(1): 1-48.

Yamamoto O. (2002) Solid waste treatment and disposal experiences in Japan. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Pollution Control and Waste Management (EPCOWM’2002), Tunis, 417-424.