the Some Physiological and Nutritional Factors that affect the growth of Some Fungi

  • Nareen Qadr Faqi abdulla Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Alternaria alternata pH Penicillium citrinum Water agar Temperatures


The present study is attempt to evaluated and compared the ability of different genera and species of fungus to utilize different nutrient sources and to grow under different environmental conditions. Four genera of molds were grown on different synthetic, semi-synthetic and natural media such as Potato Sucrose agar (PSA), Czapek's Dox agar (CDA) and Water agar (WA), which subjected to a range of temperatures (4, 15, 25, 37 and 50ºC) to investigate their influence on the performance of the mycelium of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium citrinum and Trichoderma harzianum. PSA and CDA were most favorable nutrients for fast radial growth of mycelium of all genera of fungi and at all temperatures and PH levels, while on WA, the radial mycelial growth was very little or there was no growth at all environmental conditions. In general, there was high growth at temperatures (15ºC-37ºC), while at 50ºC there was no growth or very little growth of fungi. On the other hand, a different growth of all fungal genera has been shown in all media with various pH levels, except at pH 11, which have seen little growth colonies or no growth. Penicillium citrinum have seen the highest growth in acidic pH, while Aspergillus fumigatus have seen in alkaline pH. On PSA media, all genera have shown the highest growth at 25°C, while no growth at 4°C and 50°C, except a little growth of Alternaria alternata and Penicillium citrinum at 4°C and Aspergillus fumigates at 50°C, while in pH ranges, the highest growth of all fungal genera have shown at pH 3-5, While no growth at pH11, except a bit growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderma harzianum. On CDA media, all genera have shown the highest growth at 25°C, while no growth at 4°C and 50°C, except a little growth of Penicillium citrinum at 4°C, while in pH ranges, the highest growth of all fungal genera have shown at pH 3-7, While the lowest growth of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderma harzianum with no growth of Penicillium citrinum. While on WA media, all genera have shown a little growth at all temperatures, except Trichoderma harzianum, there was no growth at all temperatures, Alternaria alternata, and also no growth at 4°C and 50°C, Aspergillus fumigatus, no growth at 4°C, Penicillium citrinum,and no growth at 50°C, while in pH ranges, a little growth of all fungal genera have shown at pH 3-7, Whilst no growth of all genera at pH11, except Aspergillus fumigatus.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Nareen Qadr Faqi abdulla, Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Ahmed, A. and Naresh, M., 2009. Influence of physiological factors on growth, sporulation, and ochratoxin A/B production of new Aspergillus ochraceus grouping. World Mycotoxin Journal. 2(4): 429 – 434.
Alam, M.S.; Begum, M.F.; Sarkar, M.A.; Islam, M.R. and Alam, M.S.,2001. Effect of temperature, light and media on growth, sporulation, and formation of pigments and pycnidia of Botryodiplodiatheobromae Pat. Pak. J. Bio. Sci. 4(10): 1224-1227.
Alexopoulos, C.J., 1962. Introductory Mycology.2nd ed.Wiley Eastern University Edition. 562pp.
Allen, S.J.; Brown, J.F. and Kochman, J.k., 1982. Effects of temperature, dew period, and light on the growth and development of Alternaria sp. Phytopathology.73: 893-896.
Basu, B.N. and Bhattacharyya, J.P., 1962. Studies on the Growth and Sporulation of Some Species of Penicillium J. gen. Microbiol.27: 61-73.
Brock, D.L. and Heymann, D., 2006. Deadly Diseases and epidemics. Infectious Fungi. Chelsea House. An imprint of Info base Publishing. 126Pp.
Cao, C.; Li, R.; Wan, Z.; Liu, W.; Wang, X.; Qiao, J.; Wang, D. Bulmer, G. and Calderone, R., 2007. The effects of temperature, pH, and salinity on the growth and dimorphism of Penicillium marneffei. 45(5): 401-407.
Carlos, A. and Josep, A., 2012. Effects of Temperature, pH and Water Potential on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation and Chlamydospore Production in Culture of Cylindrocarpon species Associated with Black Foot of Grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 51(1): 37−50.

Cook, R.J and Baker, K.F., 1983. Theory and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Forbes, B.A.; Sahm, D.F. and Weissfeld, A.S., 2007.Bailey and Scotts Diagnostic microbiology.12th ed. Inf., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. printed in China. Pp. 632.
Hogg, S., 2005. Essential Microbiology. John Wiley &Sons Ltd, the Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England. Pp.199.
Jayaswal, R.K.; Singh R. and Su Lee, Y., 2003. Influence of Physiological and Environmental Factors on Growth and Sporulation of an Antagonistic Strain of Trichoderma viride RSR 7. The Korean Society of Mycology.31(1).
Johnson, L.F.; Bernard, E.C. and Qian, P., 1987. Isolation of Trichoderma spp. at low temperatures from Tennessee and Alaska soil. Plant disease 71(2):137-140.
Johnston, A. and Booth, C., 1983. Plant Pathologists Pocket Book. 2nd ed. Common wealth mycological institute.
Kaiser, C.; Van der Merwe, R.; Bekker, T. F. and Labuschagne, N., 2005. In vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi, including Phytophthora cinnamomi by soluble silicon.South African Avocado Growers’ Association.
Khanzada, M. A.; Rajput, A. Q. and Shahzad, S., 2006. Effect of medium, temperature, light and inorganic fertilizers on in vitro growth and sporulation of lasiodiplodia theobromae isolated from mango. pak. j. bot. 38(3): 885-889.
Mustafa, A.; Aslam Khan, M.; Inam-ul-Haq, M. Aslam Pervez, M. and Umar, U., 2009.Usefulness of different culture media for in-vitro evaluation of Trichoderma spp. against seed-borne fungi of economic importance.Pak. J. Phytopathol. 21(1): 83-88.
O’Brian, G.R.; Georgianna, D.R.; Wilkinson, D.R.; Yu, J.; Abbas, H.K.; Cleveland, D.; Bhatnagar, T.E.; Nierman, W.G. and Payne, A., 2007. The effect of elevated temperature on gene transcription and aflatoxin biosynthesis. Mycologia, 99: 232-239.
Ogunledun, A., 2007. The incidence of microbial contaminant and nutrients composition of selected cocoa-based beverages in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, pp: 1-144.

Pardo, E.; Marín, S.; Ramos, A.J. and Sanchis, V., 2006. Ecophysiology of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum isolates. Predictive models for fungal spoilage prevention - a review. 23(4):398-410.
Quroshi, S.U. and Meah, M.B., 1991. Studies on physiological aspects of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., causing stem-end rot of mango. Bangladesh J. Bot. 20(1): 49-54.
Rosfarizan, M.; Ariff, A.B.; Hassan, M.A. and Karim, M.I., 2000. Influence of pH on kojic acid fermentation by Aspergillus flavus. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3:977–982.
Sabalpara, A.N.; Vala, D.G. and Solanky, K.U., 1991. Morphological variation in Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., causing twig-blight and die-back of mango. Acta Hort. (ISHS).291: 312-316.
Saha, A.; Mandal, P.; Dasgupta, S. and Saha, D., 2008. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon and Maubl. J. of Enviro. Bio. 29(3): 407-410.
Samson, R.A.; Hoekstra, E.S. and Frisvad, J.C.,2004. Introduction to Food- and Airborne Fungi, 7th ed., Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, Netherlands, 389 pp.
Sibounnavoung, P.; Kalaw, S.P.; Divina, C.C.and Soytong, K., 2009. Mycelial Growth and Sporulation of Emericella nidulans, A New Fungal Antagonist On Two Culture Media. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 5(2): 317-324.
Simon, A. and Sivasithamparam, K., 1988. Microbial differences between soils suppressive and conducive to the saprophytic growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Canadian J. Microbiol.34: 860-864.
Swe, K.H.; Alimon, A.R. and Ramin, M., 2009. Effect of Delaying Sporulation by Addition of Ammonium Sulphate on the Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake Based Substrate by Aspergillus niger. American Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 4(4): 262 – 265.
Tatiana, T.M.; Rodrigues, L.A.; Maffia, O.D. and Mizubuti, E.S.,2010. In vitro production of conidia of Alternaria solani. Tropical Plant Pathology. 35 (4): 203-212.

Upadhyay, R. S. and Rai, B., 1978. A note on the distribution of Trichoderma in Indian soils. Acta Botanica Indica 6: 196-198.
Walker, G.M. and White, N.A., 2005. Fungi Biology and Applications, Wiley, England, Pp. 1.
Wheeler, K.A.; Hurdman, B.F. and Pitt, J.I., 1991. Influence of pH on the growth of some toxigenic species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. International Journal of Food Microbiology 12, 141-150.
Zhao, H.; Huang, L.; Xiao, C.L.; Liu, J.; Wei, J.and Gao, X., 2010. Influence of Culture Media and Environmental Factors on Mycelial Growth and Conidial Production of Diplocarpon mali. The Society for Applied Microbiology, Letters in Applied Microbiology 50: 639–644.
How to Cite
Faqi abdulla, N. (2018) “the Some Physiological and Nutritional Factors that affect the growth of Some Fungi”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 30(5), pp. 180-193. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.30.5.16.