Soil fertility status for wheat crop production based on its soil organic matter and nitrogen contents
The study was conducted to show the role of organic carbon and total content of available nitrogen on soil suitability for wheat production. The study area located in central of Iraq, in Al-Kufa – Alnajaf province situated approximately between 32° 00' N to 32° 10' N and 44° 20' E to 44° 35' E with total area of 27664 ha. Thirty five sites were selected representing all variations within the study area and located on landsat 8 image using GPS. Soil samples were taken from each of the selected sites and analyzed in laboratory to determine some physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that most soils of the study soils are Haplosalids and to some extend the presence of Torrifluvents. Most of soils have high salt accumulation. Rating scores for soil properties were evaluated using FAO, 2007 system to determine the suitability class for each soil site .The results indicated four suitability classes for wheat production in the study area including , S3, N1 and N2 with, about 37% of the total area of the study site are not suitable for wheat production due, mainly to the effect of high salinity level and to some extent to low content of organic carbon and total available nitrogen. Also, the results demonstrated the effects of organic carbon and available nitrogen on the spatial distribution pattern of soil suitability classes for wheat production.
Bouyoucos, G.L. 1962. Direction for making mechanical analysis of soil by the hydrometer method . Soil . Sci. 42 : 225-228.
FAO, 1976. A framework for land evaluation. Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited Nations, Soils Bulletin 32. FAO, Rome.
FAO, 2007. Land Evaluation Towards a Revised Framework. Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
FAO,2011. Country pasture/forage resource profiles: Iraq, FAO, Rome, Italy, p.34.
He, Y., Y. Yao, Y. Chen, and L. Ongaro . 2011. Regional Land Suitability Assessment for Tree Crops Using Remote Sensing and GIS Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring (CDCIEM) IEEE, Changsha (2011) pp. 354–363
Hesse, P .R. (1971). A text Book of Soil Chemical Aanalysis. John Murray. LTD. London, British.
Huete, A. R. 1988. A soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Remote Sensing ofEnvironment 25: 295–309.
Huete, A. R., Liu, H. Q., Batchily, K., and van Leeuwen, W. 1997. A comparison of vegetation indices global set of TM images for EOS-MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment 59: 440-451.
ITT, corporation. 2009. ENVI 4.7 soft ware .1133 Westchester Avenue , White Plains,NY 10604 ,USA.
Jackson, M. L. S.L. Tyler , A.L. Willuims , G. A. Bourbear and R. P. Pennigton . 1958.Weathering Sequence of clay Size minerals in soil and Sediment J. phys . co 11 chems.52.
Lark, R.M .2009. Kriging a soil variable with a simple no stationary variance model. J.Agric. Biol. Environ. Stat. 14: 301–321.
Lee, T.M. and H.C. Yeh 2009 . Applying remote sensing techniques to monitor shifting wetland vegetation: a case study of Danshui River estuary mangrove communities, Taiwan Ecological Engineering, 35 (2009), pp. 487–496
Lichtenstern , A . 2013 . Kriging methods in spatial statistics . Technics UniversityMunich . Department of Mathematics . Bachelor’s Thesis .
Martin, D.and S.K. Saha 2009. Land evaluation by integrating remote sensing and GIS for cropping system analysis in a watershed Current Science, 96 .p. 1
Muhaimeed, A.S., Al-Falihi, A.A., Al-Aini, E., and Taha, A.M., (2014).Developing Land Suitability maps for Some Crops in Abu-Ghraib Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of RS and GIS, Vol, 2, Issue (1): pp 2052-5583.
Muhaimeed ,A.S. and Z.R.Ali . 2015. Monitoring Degradation of Agricultural Land in Baghdad Province using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 3: 1 : 34 – 41.
Muhaimeed A.S .and Drakhshan R. Jaf D.R. 2016. Land Suitability for Wheat
Production under Dry Farming System in Erbil Plain Using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry .3: 8: 1-9.
Page , A.L., R.H. Miller, and D.R. Kenney. (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis Part (2).
2nd ed. Agronomy 9 Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin.
Papanicolaou, E.P.(1976).Determination of cation exchange capacity of calcareous soils and their percent base saturation. Soil Sci. 121:65-71.
Prakash, T. N.2003. Land Suitability Analysis for Agricultural Crops: A Fuzzy
Multicriteria Decision Making Approach, MSc thesis, ITC, Netherlands: 6- 13.
Richards, L.A. (1954) . Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkalin soils. U.S.D.A Handbook No. 60. Rossiter , D.G. and ALES .1990: a framework for land evaluation using microcomputer Soil Use & Management, 6 . pp. 7–20
Soil Survey Division Staff . 1993. Soil Survey Manual. USDA – SCS. Agric. Hand book 18. Washington, DC: U.S. Government printing Office.
Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Keys to soil taxonomy . 7th Edition USDA . NRCS . Washington, D.C.
Sonneveld , M.P.W, , M.J.D. Hack-ten Broeke, C.A. van Diepen, and H.L. Boogaard. 2010. Thirty years of systematic land evaluation in the Netherlands .Geoderma, 156 pp. 84–92.
Sys , C. , E. van Ranst and J. Debaveye . 1993. Land Evaluation part III , crop requirements . Agricltural Publication No.7 . General Administration for development Cooperation , Brussels , Belgium.
Webster, R. and M. A. Oliver (2007). Geostatistics for Environmental Scientists (2nd ed.). Statistics in Practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wu , W . 2011 . Atmospheric Correction for Landsat Data – Material for remote sensing training . ICARDA .firstname.lastname@example.org .
Wu , W. (2014) . The Generalized Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) for Dryland Characterization . Remote Sens. ( 6): 1211-1233.
Copyright (c) 2018 Aurass Muhi Taha, Halema abduljabar abdul rahem, Alwand Tahir Rasheed Dizayee, Ahmad Salih Muhaimeed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation