the Determination of diazinon residues in artificially polluted soils.
The combination effects of diazinon insecticide (O, O-diethyl O-[6-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-4-pyrimidynyl]), three different soil orders (Entisols, Vertisols and Inceptisols) and two soil moisture contents (50% and 100% of field capacity) was studied in a pot experimental design. This experiment last for two months from with five sampling periods at biweekly intervals. The main obtained results of this study were the lowest pH values (6.53±0.006) shown by the combined treatment DS3W2. The combinations DS3W1, DS3W2 and CS1W1 showed the highest organic matter levels (20.698±0.001 g.kg-1). The combined treatment DS3W2 showed the highest total nitrogen contents (2.811±0.003 g.kg-1). Diazinon residues were above the maximum residue limit (MRL) after 24h of application. Whereas, residues have not detected in the treated soils during the other sampling periods and this may indicate complete degradation of diazinon, which may refer to diazinon properties, environmental factors, microbial activities and soil characteristics.
ALSHAIKH, L. A. 2011. Effect of some fungicides, phosphorus levels and mycorrihzal inoculation on yield, protein and oil content of soybean Glycine max L. Merr. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Salahaddin-Erbil.
BASHOUR, I. I. and Sayegh, A. H. 2007. Methods of Analysis for Soils of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 119pp.
BORDJIBA, O., Steiman, R., Kadri, M., Semadi, A. and Guiraud, P. 2001. Removal of herbicide from liquid media by fungi isolated from a contaminated soil. J. Environ. Qual., 30(2): 418-426.
CSERHÁTI, T., Forgács, E., Deyl, Z., Miksik, I. and Eckhardt, A. 2004. Chromatographic determination of herbicide residues in various matrices. Biomed. Chro., 18: 350-359.
DARWESH, D. A. 2004. Effect of some pesticides on denitrification in different textured soils. Zanco J., 16(3): 139-144.
DRUFOVKA, K., Danevcic, T., Trebse, P. and Stopar, D. 2008. Microorganisms trigger chemical degradation of diazinon. Int. Biodeterio. Biodeg., 62: 293-296.
EDWARDS, C. A. 1975. Factors that affect the persistence of pesticides in plants and soils. Pure Appl. Chem., 42(1/2): 39-56.
HAMADAMIN, S. I. 2006. Adsorption of metalaxyl and glyphosate on six Erbilian agricultural soils. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Salahaddin-Erbil.
HILL, D. S. 2008. Pests of Crop in Warmer Climates and their Control. Springer Netherlands. XII Edition.
HODGES, S. C. 2012. Soil Fertility Basics: NC Certified Crop Advisor Training. Soil Science Extension North Carolina State University.
JOHNSON, E. 2004. Herbicide Soil Residues. From the web site: www.ssca.ca/ conference/ conference 2004.
JONES, J. B. 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press LLC. USA. 363pp.
KABIR, K. H., Rahman, M. A., Ahmed, M. S., Prodhan, M. D. and Akon, M. W. 2008. Determination of residue of diazinon and carbosulfan in Brinjal and Quinalphos in yard long bean under supervised field trial. Bangladesh J. Agric. Res. 33(3): 503-513.
KENDALL, R. J., Brewer, L. W. and Hitchcock, R. R. 1993. Response of Canada Geese to a turf application of diazinon AG500. J. Wildlife Dis. 29(3): 458-464.
KHIDER, A. K. 1981. A study on root-nodule bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum) on broad bean in some Northern Iraqi soils. M.Sc. Thesis, Sulaimanyah, Iraq.
KHUDHUR, S. M. 2011. Impact of some pesticides on soil pollution. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Salahaddin-Erbil.
KHUDHUR, N. S. 2013. Effect of Some Pesticides on Soil Microorganisms in Hawler Governorate. PhD dissertation, Salahaddin University-Erbil.
KHUDHUR, N. S. 2018. Effect of Kawrgosk Oil Refinery on Some Physicochemical Characteristics, Microbial Population and Biochemical Properties of Surface Soils. Zanco J. Pure and Applied Sciences, 30(1): 1-13.
KHUDHUR, N. S. and Sarmamy, A. O. I. 2016. Impact of some pesticides on total counts of soil non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, particularly Azotobacter sp.. J. Zankoy Sulaimani, (Part-A) 18(1): 99-126.
KHUDHUR, N. S. and Sarmamy, A. O. I. 2018. A study on microbial population under the effect of some pesticides in different soil orders and moisture contents. J. Raparin Univ., 5(14): 75-98.
MASSIHA, A., Pahlaviani, M. R. and Issazadeh, K. 2011. Microbial degradation of pesticides in surface soil using native strain in Iran. International Conference on Biotechnology and Environment Management. IPCBEE Vol.18. IACSIT Press, Singapoore.
MEDVED, L. I. 1975. Circulation of pesticides in the biosphere. Pure Appl. Chem., 42(1): 119-128.
MEISTER, R. T., Fitzgerald, G. T., Miller, W. J., Nowels, K. E., Gorman, C. and DeLuca, M. 2008. Crop Protection Handbook. Volume 94. Meister Media Worldwide. USA.
MILNE, G. W. 1998. Handbook of Pesticides. CRC Press LLC.
MOROS, J., Armenta, S., Garrigues, S. and Guardia, M. 2007. Comparison of two vibrational procedures for the direct determination of mancozeb in agrochemicals. Talanta., 72: 72-79.
NPIC, National Pesticide Information Center (2003). Diazinon technical fact sheet. Oregon State University. www.npic.orst.edu. email@example.com.
PANDEY, K, Shukla, J. P. and Trivedi, S. P. 2005. Fundamentals of Toxicology. New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd. India. 356pp.
PANSU, M. and Gautheyrou, J. 2006. Handbook of Soil Analysis: Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 993pp.
PLIMMER, J. R., Gammon, D. W. and Ragsdale, N. R. 2003. Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals. Vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication. 1638pp.
PRETTY, J. 2005. The Pesticide Detox: Towards a More Sustainable Agriculture. Earthscan Publisher. London. 294pp.
RYAN, J., Estefan, G. and Rashid, A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. Second Edition. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. 172 pp.
SANCHEZ, F. J., Zafra-Gomez, A., Ruiz-Garcıa, J., Bermudez-Peinado, R., Ballesteros, O., Navalon A. and Vilchez, J.L. 2011. UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited method for the determination of 121 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Food Compos. Anal., 24: 427-440.
SÁNCHEZA, M. E., Méndezb, R. Gómeza, X. and Martín-Villacorta, J. 2003. Determination of diazinon and fenitrothion in environmental water and soil samples by HPLC. J. Liq. Chromato. Related Tech., 26 (3): 483-497.
SHARIFF, R.M. 2008. Thermodynamic and kinetic study for adsorption of herbicides on Kurdistan agricultural soils. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Salahaddin-Erbil.
SHITTU, O. B., Akintokun, A. K., Akintokun, P. O. and Gbadebo, M. O. 2004. Effect of diazinon application on soil properties and soil microflora. Proceedings of the International Conference on Science & National Development, 25th-28th.
STENERSEN, J. 2004. Chemical pesticides: mode of action and toxicology. CRC Press. Washington, D.C. USA.
TANG, J., Zhang, M., Cheng, G. and Lu, Y. 2009. Diazinon determination using high performance liquid chromatography: a comparison of the ENVI-Carb column with the immunoaffinity column for the pretreatment of water and soil samples. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 83: 626-629.
TOMLIN, C. D. 2009. The Pesticide Manual. Fifteenth Edition. Latimer Trend & Co., Plymouth. UK.
VAN REEUWIJK, L. P. 2002. Procedures for Soil Analysis, Technical Paper 9. Sixth Edition. International Soil Reference and Information Centre. The Netherlands. 101pp.
WHO. 2010. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Wissenchaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart, Germany.
XU, S. 2000. Environmental fate of mancozeb. Environmental Monitoring & Pest Management Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, CA 95814-3510.
Copyright (c) 2019 Nashmeel Saeed Khudhur, Abdul-ghany Omer Ismaeel Sarmamy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation