Study of Crumb Rubber Modified Local Asphalts Using Classical Tests

  • Diyar Nadhim Hasan Shwan Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Aso Faiz Saeed Talabany Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Modified Asphalt; CRM; Recycled tire; Classical Asphalt tests.


The rapid growth of population and industrialization levels around the world requires higher number of vehicles for transportation and better road qualities, on one hand, on the other hand this growth causes a huge number of scrap tires. These two problems can be solved together by incorporating scrap tires into the asphalt pavements to improve its properties and recycle the scrap tires. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) on the asphalt properties using classical tests. Different percentages of CRM by weight of the asphalt was added to three locally produced asphalts of different sources and grades. The results of this study show that higher CRM contents lead to decrease penetration and ductility values, while it causes increase of the softening point, elastic recovery and penetration index. Higher softening point and elastic recovery indicates better resistance against rutting and high temperature deteriorations, higher penetration index indicates lower temperature susceptibility.


BAHIA, H. U. & DAVIES, R. 1994. Effect of crumb rubber modifiers (CRM) on performance related properties of asphalt binders. Asphalt paving technology, 63, 414-414.
D92, A. 2016. Standard test method for flash and fire points by Cleveland open cup tester. Annual Book of Standards.
DANTAS NETO, S. A., FARIAS, M. M. D., PAIS, J. C., PEREIRA, P. A. & SANTOS, L. P. Properties of asphalt-rubber binders related to characteristics of the incorporated crumb rubber. Asphalt Rubber 2003 Conference, 2003. 297-310.
EHINOLA, O. A., FALODE, O. A. & JONATHAN, G. 2012. Softening point and Penetration Index of bitumen from parts of Southwestern Nigeria. Nafta, 63, 319-323.
ETRMA. 2011. End of life tyres [Online]. Available: [Accessed May 19,2019.
HEITZMAN, M. 1992. Design and construction of asphalt paving materials with crumb rubber modifier. Transportation Research Record, 1339.
LEE, S.-J., AKISETTY, C. K. & AMIRKHANIAN, S. N. 2008. The effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the performance properties of rubberized binders in HMA pavements. Construction and Building Materials, 22, 1368-1376.
MASHAAN, N. S., ALI, A. H., KARIM, M. R. & ABDELAZIZ, M. 2011. Effect of crumb rubber concentration on the physical and rheological properties of rubberised bitumen binders. International journal of the physical sciences, 6, 684-690.
MASHAAN, N. S. & KARIM, M. R. 2013. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility. Materials Research, 16, 116-127.
MORENO, F., RUBIO, M. & MARTINEZ-ECHEVARRIA, M. 2011. Analysis of digestion time and the crumb rubber percentage in dry-process crumb rubber modified hot bituminous mixes. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2323-2334.
NAVARRO, F., PARTAL, P., MARTÍNEZ‐BOZA, F. & GALLEGOS, C. 2007. Influence of processing conditions on the rheological behavior of crumb tire rubber‐modified bitumen. Journal of applied polymer science, 104, 1683-1691.
NEJAD, F. M., AGHAJANI, P., MODARRES, A. & FIROOZIFAR, H. 2012. Investigating the properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen using classic and SHRP testing methods. Construction and Building Materials, 26, 481-489.
PAULO, A. & JORGE, C. 2008. Laboratory optimization of continuous blend asphalt rubber. Proceedings of 3rd European Pavement and Asset Management EPAM, 3.
PERALTA, J., SILVA, H. M., MACHADO, A. V., PAIS, J., PEREIRA, P. A. & SOUSA, J. B. 2010. Changes in rubber due to its interaction with bitumen when producing asphalt rubber. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 11, 1009-1031.
PRESTI, D. L. 2013. Recycled tyre rubber modified bitumens for road asphalt mixtures: A literature review. Construction and Building Materials, 49, 863-881.
SEBAALY, P. E., GOPAL, V. T. & EPPS, J. A. 2003. Low temperature properties of crumb rubber modified binders. Road materials and pavement design, 4, 29-49.
SHEN, J. & AMIRKHANIAN, S. 2005. The influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) microstructures on the high temperature properties of CRM binders. The International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 6, 265-271.
SHEN, J., AMIRKHANIAN, S., XIAO, F. & TANG, B. 2009. Influence of surface area and size of crumb rubber on high temperature properties of crumb rubber modified binders. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 304-310.
TREDREA, P. 2006. Specification framework for polymer modified binders and multigrade bitumens.
VONK, W. & BULL, A. Phase phenomena and concentration effects in blends of bitumen and cariflex TR. Proceedings of the 7th International Roofing Congress, 1989.
How to Cite
Nadhim Hasan Shwan, D., and A. Faiz Saeed Talabany. “Study of Crumb Rubber Modified Local Asphalts Using Classical Tests”. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 31, no. 6, Dec. 2019, pp. 23-29, doi:10.21271/ZJPAS.31.6.3.
Mathematics ,Physics and Engineering Researches