Sustainability of Aquifer and Ground Water Condition in Erbil Basin/ Iraq

  • dana khider mawlood Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Aquifer, Groundwater, Sustainability, Specific Yield, Water Recharge, Erbil basin

Abstract

Groundwater is the main source of water in Erbil province, Iraq. The change in climate and the rapid development in the city, generally, increases the rate of GW depletion. The study aims to investigate the effects of the current exploitation of groundwater on the sustainability of the aquifer. Data like climate, soil, number of wells, and the hydrogeology of Erbil aquifer are compiled to recognize the current and future conditions of the aquifer. The results show that there is an irresponsible use of GW. The water table has been found to decrease around 1.24 meters annually. This comes due to excessive use, lack of awareness and absence of clear and strict policy towards GW sustainability in the region. The challenges facing the Department of Groundwater Resources, which is responsible for managing and developing GW sources are indicated. A set of recommendations are then presented for improving the GW management and sustainability.

References

AHMED, M. R. 2009. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells in Zaweta District, Northern Iraq. Tikrit Journal of Eng. Sciences, 17, 28-35.
ALLEY, W. M., REILLY, T. E. & FRANKE, O. L. 1999. Sustainability of ground-water resources, US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.
CLIMATE-DATA.ORG. 2018. Climate of Erbil [Online]. Available: https://en.climate-data.org/asia/iraq/erbil/erbil-4976/ [Accessed].
COUNCIL, N. R. 2001. Investigating groundwater systems on regional and national scales, National Academies Press.
DIZAYEE, R. H. 2014. Groundwater Degradation and Sustainability of the Erbil Basin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Texas Christian University, Fortworth, Texas. Student thesis.
GUPTA, A. D. & BABEL, M. 2005. Challenges for sustainable management of groundwater use in Bangkok, Thailand. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 21, 453-464.
HABIB, H., AL-SAIGH, N. & HASSAN, Z. Geochemistry of undergroundwater in Erbil City, Iraq. conference of SDRC, Mosul, 1990.
HAMEED, H. 2013. Water harvesting in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq: detection of suitable sites using geographic information system and remote sensing. Student thesis series INES.
Harter, T. (2003). Groundwater Quality and Groundwater Pollution. http://dx.doi.org/10.3733/ucanr.8084 Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0vw7400h.
JOHNSON, A. I. 1967. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials.
JONES, J. A. A. 2014. Global hydrology: processes, resources and environmental management, Routledge.
KINZELBACH, W., BAUER, P., SIEGFRIED, T. & BRUNNER, P. 2003. Sustainable groundwater management--Problems and scientific tool. Episodes-Newsmagazine of the International Union of Geological Sciences, 26, 279-284.
MAJEED, R. & AHMAD, M. 2002. Brief References on Hydrogeological Characters of Erbil Basin. Unpublished Report, Erbil-Iraq.
MAWLOOD, D., HUSSEIN, E. A. J. J. Z. J. O. P. & SCIENCES, A. 2016. Integrated Water Management in Mala Omer, Erbil, KRI. 28.
MAWLOOD, D. K., MUSTAFA, J. S. J. Z. J. O. P. & SCIENCES, A. 2017. Analyze the well losses and aquifer losses on the pumping test results. 29, 127-133.
METEOBLUE-WEATHER. 2018. Climate of Erbil [Online]. Available: https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/erbil_iraq_95446 [Accessed 25-Dec 2018].
MITRA, S. 2015. Groundwater Sustainability-A Brief Review. International Journal of Ecosystem, 5, 43-46.
NCCI 2015. Erbil Governorate Profile. Governmental Document Presented By NGO Coordination Committee for Iraq.
PONCE, V. M. 2006. Groundwater utilization and sustainability. San Diego State University, College of Engineering. San Diego, Calif.[http://groundwater. sdsu. edu/].
QURESHI, A. S., MCCORNICK, P. G., SARWAR, A. & SHARMA, B. R. 2010. Challenges and prospects of sustainable groundwater management in the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Water resources management, 24, 1551-1569.
SHI, X., FANG, R., WU, J., XU, H., SUN, Y. & YU, J. 2012. Sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources considering land subsidence in Suzhou, China. Engineering geology, 124, 77-89.
SOPHOCLEOUS, M. 2005. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA. Hydrogeology Journal, 13, 351-365.
WALI, K. I. & ALWAN, Z. M. 2016. Quality management for Ground water by Assessment of Aquifer Vulnerability to Contamination in Erbil City. Engineering and Technology Journal, 34, 698-714.
ZAKARIA, S. 2012. Rain water harvesting and supplemental irrigation at Sinjar district in northwest Iraq. Luleå tekniska universitet.
ZHOU, Y. 2009. A critical review of groundwater budget myth, safe yield and sustainability. Journal of Hydrology, 370, 207-213.
Published
2019-12-05
How to Cite
mawlood, dana (2019) “Sustainability of Aquifer and Ground Water Condition in Erbil Basin/ Iraq”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(6), pp. 51-60. doi: 10.21271/zjpas.31.6.6.
Section
Mathematics ,Physics and Engineering Researches