Effect of Nano-Cerium Oxide and Water Additives On B5 Combustion Emissions

  • Taha Roodbar Shojaei Department of Chemical and Environmental, College of Engineering, University of Putra Malaysia, Serdang,Malaysia.
  • Esmail Khalife Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq.
  • Meisam Tabatabaei Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
  • Bahman Najafi Department of Biosystem, College of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil,Iran
  • Mostafa Mirsalim Department of Mechanical, College of Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords: Additive; Biodiesel; Nano cerium oxide; Diesel Engine; Emissions


The climate changes of car emission regulation recenntly requirement for cleaner engine combustion. Reduction of engine emission could play a key role on public health. Addition of 2-20% biodiesel into diesel fuel could significantly reduce exhaust emission. Biodiesel could improve engine combustion and reduce diesel gases except NOx. Using additives is a successful way to diminish NOx emission. Among fuel additives, water could effectively reduce NOx emission beside other advantages. In present research, cerium oxide was employed to prevent disadvantages from thermal effect of water during combustion. In present study, emission characteristics of combustion of emulsified B5 (95% diesel fuel and 5% Biodiesel) containing 60 ppm cerium oxide and 5% water were scrutinized. Present findings showed that B5W6 emulsion fuel (B5 containing 6% water) reduced CO, HC, and NOx emission effectively. Besides, results obtained showed that nano cerium oxide particles reduced more emission compared with B5W6..



Al-Widyan, M. I., & Tashtoush, G. (2002). Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel
engines. Fuel Processing Technology, 76(2), 91-103.
Bautista, L. F., Vicente, G., Rodriguez, R., & Pacheco, M. (2009). Optimisation of FAME production from
waste cooking oil for biodiesel use. Biomass and bioenergy, 33(5), 862-872.
Davis, J., Johnson, D., Edgar, D., Wardlow, G., & Sadaka, S. (2012). NO (x) Emissions and Performance of a
Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine with Emulsified and Non-Emulsified Fuels. Applied Engineering in
Agriculture, 28(2), 179-186.
Debnath, B. K., Sahoo, N., & Saha, U. K. (2013a). Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the
performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management,
69, 191-198.
Fahd, M. E. A., Wenming, Y., Lee, P., Chou, S., & Yap, C. R. (2013). Experimental investigation of the
performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine by water emulsion diesel under
varying engine load condition. Applied Energy, 102, 1042-1049.
Farfaletti, A., Astorga, C., Martini, G., Manfredi, U., Mueller, A., Rey, M., . . . Larsen, B. R. (2005). Effect of
water/fuel emulsions and a cerium-based combustion improver additive on HD and LD diesel exhaust
emissions. Environmental science & technology, 39(17), 6792-6799.
Ganesh, D., & Gowrishankar, G. (2011, September). Effect of nano-fuel additive on emission reduction in a
biodiesel fuelled CI engine. In 2011 International conference on electrical and control engineering (pp.
3453-3459). IEEE.
Glaude, P.-A., Fournet, R., Bounaceur, R., & Molière, M. (2010). Adiabatic flame temperature from biofuels
and fossil fuels and derived effect on NOx emissions. Fuel Processing Technology, 91(2), 229-235.
Hagos, F. Y., Aziz, A. R. A., & Tan, I. M. (2011). Water-in-diesel emulsion and its micro-explosion
phenomenon-review. Paper presented at the Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), 2011 IEEE
3rd International Conference on.
Hajjari, M., Ardjmand, M., & Tabatabaei, M. (2014). Experimental investigation of the effect of cerium oxide
nanoparticles as a combustion-improving additive on biodiesel oxidative stability: mechanism. RSC Adv.,
4(28), 14352-14356.
Ithnin, A. M., Ahmad, M. A., Bakar, M. A. A., Rajoo, S., & Yahya, W. J. (2015). Combustion performance
and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from low-grade
diesel fuel. Energy Conversion and Management, 90, 375-382.
Ithnin, A. M., Ahmad, M. A., Bakar, M. A. A., Rajoo, S., & Yahya, W. J. (2015). Combustion performance
and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel made from low-grade
diesel fuel. Energy Conversion and Management, 90, 375-382.
Kao, Mu-Jung, Chen-Ching Ting, Bai-Fu Lin, and Tsing-Tshih Tsung. "Aqueous aluminum nanofluid
combustion in diesel fuel." Journal of testing and evaluation 36, no. 2 (2007): 186-190.
Khalife, E., Tabatabaei, M., Demirbas, A., & Aghbashlo, M. (2017). Impacts of additives on performance and
emission characteristics of diesel engines during steady state operation. Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science, 59, 32-78.
Khalife, E., Tabatabaei, M., Najafi, B., Mirsalim, S. M., Gharehghani, A., Mohammadi, P., ... & Salleh, M. A.
M. (2017). A novel emulsion fuel containing aqueous nano cerium oxide additive in diesel–biodiesel blends
to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions: Part I–Experimental analysis. Fuel,
201: 741-750.
Kim H, Choi B. (2010). The effect of biodiesel and bioethanol blended diesel fuel on nanoparticles and exhaust
emissions from CRDI diesel engine. Renewable Energy 35:157–63.
Koc, A. B., & Abdullah, M. (2013). Performance and NO x emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodieseldiesel-
water nanoemulsions. Fuel Processing Technology, 109, 70-77.
Lin, C.-Y., & Chen, L.-W. (2006). Emulsification characteristics of three-and two-phase emulsions prepared
by the ultrasonic emulsification method. Fuel Processing Technology, 87(4), 309-317.
Qi, D., Chen, H., Geng, L., Bian, Y. Z., & Ren, X. C. (2010). Performance and combustion characteristics of
biodiesel–diesel–methanol blend fuelled engine. Applied Energy, 87(5), 1679-1686.
Şahin, Z., Tuti, M., & Durgun, O. (2014). Experimental investigation of the effects of water adding to the
intake air on the engine performance and exhaust emissions in a DI automotive diesel engine. Fuel, 115,
Song, J., & Zhang, C. (2008). An experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel
engine fuelled with soybean oil methyl ester. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part
D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 222(12), 2487-2496.
Xue, J., Grift, T. E., & Hansen, A. C. (2011). Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions.
Renewable and Sustainable energy reviews, 15(2), 1098-1116.
Zheng, M., Mulenga, M. C., Reader, G. T., & Wang, M. (2008). Ting and Jimi Tjong,“. Biodiesel engine
performance and emissions in low temperature combustion Fuel,87(6),714-722.
How to Cite
Roodbar Shojaei, T., Khalife, E., Tabatabaei, M., Najafi, B. and Mirsalim, M. (2019) “Effect of Nano-Cerium Oxide and Water Additives On B5 Combustion Emissions”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(s3), pp. 34-39. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.31.s3.5.