Study of Fault Detection Techniques for Optical Fibers
This paper represents a review of several published papers, white papers and posted articles with a view to explain background of fault detection techniques for optical fibers. Optical fibers usually carry enormous data capacity. Therefore, fault detection and localizing it plays a major role in providing a stable and reliable network. So, it is very important to identify faults at first, the most fault that face optical fibers is fiber cut, which is phenomenon of interrupting active fiber optic that carry traffic due to working on the path that optical fiber cable implemented. There is another fault that fiber optic may experience as a result of high attenuation. Low attenuation is a major feature of fiber optics that encourages their use instead of metal cables. For this reason, any increase in their value causes a significant disruption of fiber optics and leads to interruption of services. Dispersion also leads to distortion of the information signal when fiber optic transmission is carried out. After passing through the fiber, the light impulses spread, and this phenomenon is called "pulse dispersion". The dispersion level determines the system's capacity because the largest number of pulses that can be received and resolved at the receiver are sent. The OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) is the most common technique used to detect faults in fiber optics, but it is not the only one. In this paper, several techniques for detecting faults of optical fibers were studied.
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