Effect of Changed family size and composition on determining the optimum size of neighborhoods in Kurdistan Region

  • M I Dizayee Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Neighbourhoods; Schools; Family sizes; Age groups


Neighbourhoods form the basic elements in residential areas in settlements, as they are the place where main and most essential services exist to serve the residents settled in form of families or individuals. Theories and housing planning practices based the determination of size of neighbourhoods on many factors; size and composition of population with their proportion to land are the main ones. The basic services are the outcomes of those factors; all services are restricted to the number and type of users with the ability to reach those services by walking within recommended distances.

Primary schools are the most determinant and sensitive one due to user delicate age group. Iraqi optimum size of neighbourhoods in housing standards issued in 1980’s had been derived from specific number of population dependent on family compositions; after more than 30 years of noticeable demographic change, a clear need is emphasized to readjust those figures due to family and population changes that will re-establish the optimum size of our neighbourhood.

The method of current study is based on focusing on current and near future population changes especially for those age groups determining the optimum size of primary schools composing the nuclei of the neighbourhood. This technique will guarantee the best synchronization between resident’s needs linked to proposing optimum neighbourhood sizes dependent on school sizes especially primary level, at the same dwelling re-subdivision worked as a counter force to decreased portion of age groups enrolling schools. The study achieved optimum sizes of neighbourhoods for the next 10 - 25 years  determined by primary schools based on new demographic indicators..


Al-Mudaris, S. B.( 2003), The Residential Pattern in Arbil City, M. Arts Salahaddin University. Erbil, Iraq.
Al-Quraishi, I. J. (2006), Housing Planning in Iraq according to Cost and Social Benefit ,Ph.D., Baghdad University.
Aziz, M. I., (2014), Proposed Strategies for Housing Affordability in Iraqi Kurdistan, Ph.D. dissertation, USM University Pinang, Malaysia.
COSIT,( 2007). Central Statistical Abstracts, Centre of Statistics and Information Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
Digest of Education Statistics,( 2001).National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 2016.
Eisner, S., Gallion, A. and Eisner, S. (1993) , The Urban Pattern, sixth edition, John Wiley & Sons.
Engelhardt, N. L.(1943),The School-neighbourhood Nucleus. Architectural Forum.
G.H.P.I., (1982), General Housing Program for Iraq- Report Three Urban Housing Standards, MOCH, Iraq.
GDEI, (2018) Annual statistics for schools in Erbil governorate for academic year 2017-2018, General Directorate for Education, Erbil governorate. KRG, Iraq.
IHSES, 2007, .Iraqi Household Socio-Economic Study, Ministry of Planning and Information Technology,
Baghdad Iraq.
Llewelyn-Davies, (2007), Urban Design Compendium, English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation
Miller, D. C.; Sen, A.; Malley, L. B. & Burns, S. D. (2009). Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2009 (NCES 2009-039)" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
UN-HABITAT , ERBIL GOVERNORATE, Strengthening The Housing Sector in Erbil, ( 2012) Unpublished Report Erbil-Gov. KRG, Iraq.
World Life Expectancy online. Retrieved August (2017) http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/world-population-pyramid
How to Cite
Dizayee, M. I. (2019) “Effect of Changed family size and composition on determining the optimum size of neighborhoods in Kurdistan Region”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(s3), pp. 191-198. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.31.s3.26.