Essential Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters and Reusing for Irrigation

  • Shuokr Qarani Aziz Department of Civil, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Shawnm Mudhafar Saleh Department of Dams and Water Resources, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Imad Ali Omar Department of Ministry of Municipality and tourism, General Directorate of Water and Sewerage, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Industrial wastewater; treatment; dairy wastewater; irrigation; reuse


The aims of this work were to characterization of industrial wastewaters such as dairy and steel manufacturing wastewaters, possible treatment processes, and reusing the treated wastewater for irrigation purpose was discussed. Fresh wastewater samples were collected from Yörüksüt Dairy Factory and Erbil Steel Company and analyzed for 21 water quality parameters. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS) etc. were exceeded the standards for disposal of wastewater. Thus, treatment processes are essential prior disposal of wastewater to the environment or using for irrigation purpose. Based on the characteristics of the wastewaters, the treatment processes such as primary, secondary and tertiary were discussed. In addition, the quality of raw wastewater samples and proposed treated industrial wastewaters were compared with the guidelines for the irrigation purpose.


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How to Cite
Qarani Aziz, S., S. Mudhafar Saleh, and I. Ali Omar. “Essential Treatment Processes for Industrial Wastewaters and Reusing for Irrigation”. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 31, no. s3, Aug. 2019, pp. 269-75, doi:10.21271/ZJPAS.31.s3.37.