Improvement of wheat quality and soil fertility by integrates chemical fertilizer with rhizobial bacteria

  • Trifa Dhahir Saber Department of biology, College of education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Mohammed Qader Khursheed Department of biology, College of education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Chemical fertilizer, Rhizobial bacteria, Triticum sp.

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out in Erbil city at Agricultural Research Center, during winter season 2017 - 2018, to study the effect of three levels (120, 240, 360 kg.ha-1) of NPK (20:20:20) fertilizer, five species of Rhizobial  inoculation (Control, Bradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) (B1), Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Viciae (B2). Bradyrhizobium Mungbean (B3), Mesorhizobium ciceri (B4) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv phaseoli (B5)) and two wheat cultivar soft (Triticum aestivum L.)  Hawler2,and hard (Triticum durum L.) Seminto and their combination on leaf (Nitrogen, Phosphor, Potassium, Calcium and Iron)contents, soil nutrient (Total Nitrogen, available Phosphor, Potassium and Iron contents, leaf (Auxin IAA, Gibberellin GA and Cytokinin CK) contents, grain number.plot-1, weight of 1000 grain(g), grain yield kg.hac-1, biological yield kg.hac-1 and harvest index% by utilizing complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replication. Rhizobial inoculation individually increased significantly all tested parameters of growth. Generally, Seminto significantly surpassed Hawler2 in most traits under study. Interaction between of chemical fertilizer with rhizobial bacteria was more evident than that of chemical fertilizer alone for all mentioned traits. The combination of chemical fertilizer, rhizobial bacteria and wheat cultivars had a synergistic effect and improved leaf (N,P,K,Ca and Fe) contents, fertility of soil, phytohormone concentration in leaves and yield components. The finding indicated that the combination between the lower levels of NPK fertilizer with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv phaseoli inoculation for Triticum aestivum increased grain yield by 114.39% over the control. We recommend using rhizobial bacteria in combination with lower levels of NPK to reduce chemical fertilizer dose and improving yield production and soil fertility because combination between mentioned factors gave the highest values of most traits under study.

References

ADESEMOYE, A. O. & KLOEPPER, J. W. 2009. Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 85, 1-12.
ADNAN, M., SHAH, Z., KHAN, A., KHAN, G. A., ALI, A., KHAN, N. A., SALEEM, N., NAWAZ, S., AKBAR, S. & SAMREEN, S. 2014. Integrated effects of Rhizobial inoculum and inorganic fertilizers on wheat yield and yield components. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2066.
AKHTAR, N., ARSHAD, I., SHAKIR, M., QURESHI, M., SEHRISH, J. & ALI, L. 2013. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Bacillus sp. to improve the phosphorus availability and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23, 190-197.
ANIK, M. F. A., RAHMAN, M. M., RAHMAN, G. M., ALAM, M. K., ISLAM, M. S. & KHATUN, M. F. 2017. Organic amendments with chemical fertilizers improve soil fertility and microbial biomass in Rice-Rice-Rice triple crops cropping systems. Open Journal of Soil Science, 7, 87.
BIESAGA-KOŚCIELNIAK, J., OSTROWSKA, A., FILEK, M., DZIURKA, M., WALIGÓRSKI, P., MIREK, M. & KOŚCIELNIAK, J. 2014. Evaluation of spring wheat (20 varieties) adaptation to soil drought during seedlings growth stage. Agriculture, 4, 96-112.
CHEN, J.-H. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International workshop on sustained management of the soil-rhizosphere system for efficient crop production and fertilizer use, 2006. Citeseer, 20.
DALALY, B. & AL-HAKIM, S. 1987. Food analysis. Printed in Mosel University.
DAS, K., DANG, R. & SHIVANANDA, T. 2008. Influence of bio-fertilizers on the availability of nutrients (N, P and K) in soil in relation to growth and yield of Stevia rebaudiana grown in South India. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 1, 20-24.
EGAMBERDIEVA, D., WIRTH, S. J., ALQARAWI, A. A., ABD_ALLAH, E. F. & HASHEM, A. 2017. Phytohormones and beneficial microbes: essential components for plants to balance stress and fitness. Frontiers in microbiology, 8, 2104.
ETESAMI, H., ALIKHANI, H. A., JADIDI, M. & ALIAKBARI, A. 2009. Effect of superior IAA producing rhizobia on N, P, K uptake by wheat grown under greenhouse condition. World Appl. Sci. J, 6, 1629-1633.
FOULKES, M. J., SLAFER, G. A., DAVIES, W. J., BERRY, P. M., SYLVESTER-BRADLEY, R., MARTRE, P., CALDERINI, D. F., GRIFFITHS, S. & REYNOLDS, M. P. 2010. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance. Journal of experimental botany, 62, 469-486.
JALA-ABADI, A. L., SIADAT, S., BAKHSANDEH, A., FATHI, G. & SAIED, K. A. 2012. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield components in wheat (T. aestivum and T. durum) genotypes. Advances in Environmental Biology, 756-763.
JOGI, Q., KANDHRO, M. N., QURESHI, A. A. & SOLANGI, M. 2017. EFFECT OF BALANCED FERTILIZER FOR ENHANCEING WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD. Science International (Lahore), 29, 981-984.
KHOLSSI, R., MARKS, E. A., MIÑÓN, J., MONTERO, O., DEBDOUBI, A. & RAD, C. 2018. Biofertilizing Effect of Chlorella sorokiniana Suspensions on Wheat Growth. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 1-6.
KUMAR, M. 2015. Effect of NPK levels and vermicompost on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under normal practice and system of wheat intensification. Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
MEHBOOB, I. 2010. Plant growth promoting activities of rhizobium with non-legumes. A thesis submitted in soil science, institute of soil and environmental sciences, university of agricultur, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
MEHBOOB, I., ZAHIR, Z. A., ARSHAD, M., TANVEER, A. & AZAM, F. 2011. Growth promoting activities of different Rhizobium spp. in wheat. Pak. J. Bot, 43, 1643-1650.
MIA, M. B. & SHAMSUDDIN, Z. 2010. Rhizobium as a crop enhancer and biofertilizer for increased cereal production. African journal of Biotechnology, 9, 6001-6009.
MIR, M., MOBIN, M., KHAN, N., BHAT, M., LONE, N. A., BHAT, K., RAZVI, S., WANI, S., WANI, N. & AKHTER, S. 2010. Crop responses to interaction between plant growth regulators and nutrients. Journal of Phytology.
MOHAMED, S. 2000. Effect of mineral and biofertilization on growth, yield, chemical constituents and anatomical structure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants grown under reclaimed soil conditions. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 38, 2039-2063.
MORADI, A., KORDLAGHARI, K. P. & KESHAVARZ, K. Influence of Zinc and Seed Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Yield and Yield Components of Triticum aestivum (Case study: Nurabad, Iran). Biological Forum, 2015. Citeseer, 185.
MORGAN, J. & CONNOLLY, E. 2013. Plant-soil interactions: nutrient uptake. Nature Education Knowledge, 4, 2.
RYAN, J., ESTEFON, G. & RASHID, A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Bull. Fac. Sci, 31, 395-303.
SADASIVAM, S. 1996. Biochemical methods, New age international.
SAHARAN, B. & NEHRA, V. 2011. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci Med Res, 21, 30.
SHAKHAWAT, H. M. 2007. Potential use of Rhizobium spp. to improve growth of non-nitrogen fixing plants.
ŠRAMKOVÁ, Z., GREGOVÁ, E. & ŠTURDÍK, E. 2009. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of wheat grain. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 2, 115-138.
STAJKOVIĆ-SRBINOVIĆ, O., DELIĆ, D., KUZMANOVIĆ, D., PROTIĆ, N., RASULIĆ, N. & KNEŽEVIĆ-VUKČEVIĆ, J. 2014. Growth and nutrient uptake in oat and barley plants as affected by rhizobacteria. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett, 19, 9429-9436.
YE, Q., ZHANG, H., WEI, H., ZHANG, Y., WANG, B.-F., XIA, K., HUO, Z.-Y., DAI, Q.-G. & XU, K. 2005. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 31, 1422.
ZAHIR, Z. A., YASIN, H., NAVEED, M., ANJUM, M. & KHALID, M. 2010. L-tryptophan application enhances the effectiveness of rhizobium inoculation for improving growth and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Pak J Bot, 42, 1771-1780.
ZAKI, N., GOMAA, M., RADWAN, F., HASSANEIN, M. & WALI, A. 2012. Effect of mineral, organic and bio-fertilizers on yield, yield components and chemical composition of some wheat cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8, 174-191.
Published
2020-04-22
How to Cite
Saber, T. and Qader Khursheed, M. (2020) “Improvement of wheat quality and soil fertility by integrates chemical fertilizer with rhizobial bacteria”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 32(2), pp. 178-191. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.32.2.19.
Section
Biology and Medical Researches