Effect of Different Levels of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Heavy Metals Concentration in Corn (Zea mays) Cultivated in Oil Polluted Soil
A pot experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of the Agriculture College, Salahaddin University of - Erbil, at Grdarasha field in silty clay loam (south of Erbil city) (36° 07' N, 44° 00' E), 411m above the sea level, during summer growing season of year 2016, to study the effect of five levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1) on heavy metals concentration in corn plants growing in polluted and non polluted. The results revealed that the oil contaminated soil affects the growth performance of corn as percent germination. As well as showed that spent oil in soil has highly significant ( p ≤ 0.05) effects on some soil physico - chemical properties including pH, EC, Ca, Carbon and heavy metals concentrations. The spent oil also significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) the germination percentage; the seeds observed in the control pots had normal growth, where as in the polluted soils with oil the seeds had no germination, the plants had stunted growth. Therefore contamination of agriculture soils with oil should be avoided and public awareness should be created on the detrimental effects of oil pollution in our terrestrial ecosystem.
of Spent Engine Oil on the Growth Parameters
and Moisture Content of Celosia argentea,
proceeding of the 15th Annual Botanical Society
of Nigeria Conference, University of Uyo,pp. 108-
Adenipekun, C. O., O. J. Oyetunji and Kassim, L. Q.
(2009). Screening of Abelmoschu sesculentus L.
Moench for Tolerance to Spent Engine, Journal of
Applied Biosciences, Vol. 20, pp.1131-1137.
Adriano, D. (2001). Trace Elements in Terrestrial
Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability
and Risks of Metal: (2nd) Ed. Springer, New York.
Agbogidi, O.M. and Nweke, F.U. (2005). Effects of
crude oil polluted soil on the performance of Okra
(Abelmos chusesculentus L.) Moench in Delta
State.African Journal of Natural Sciences (8): 31-
Agbogidi, O.M. (2009). Yield components of six
cultivars of cowpea (Vignaun guiculata(L.) Walp
grown on soil contaminated with spent engine oil.
Acta Agronomica Nigeriana 9 (1& 2): 1-6.
Agbogidi, O.M. and Egbuchua, C.O. (2010). Heavy
metal concentrations of soil contaminated with
spent engine oil in Asaba, Delta State. Acta
Agronomica Nigeriana10 (1): 65-69.
Agbogidi, O.M. (2011). Effects of crude oil
contaminated soil on biomass accumulation in
Jatroph- acurcas L. seedlings. Journal of
Ornamental and Horticultural Plants.1 (1):39- 45.
Allen, S.E. H. M. Grimshaw, J. A. Parkinson and Quarmby,C. (1974). Chemical analysis of ecological material's. Blackwell Scientific Publication Osney Mead, Oxford.
Anoliefo, G. O. and Vwioko, D. E. (2001). Tolerance of
Chromolaena odorata (L) K. and R. grown in soil
contaminated with spent lubricating oil. Journal of
Tropical Bioscience1(1): 20-24.
Benka-Coker, M. O. and Ekundayo, J. A. (1995). Effect
of an oil spill on soil physicochemical properties of a
spill site in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 36:93-
Bossert, L. and Bratha, R. (1984). The Fate of Petroleum
in the Soil Ecosystem, In: R. M. Atlas, Ed.,
Petroleum Microbiology, Macmillian, New York,
Cook, F. H. and Westlake, D. W. (1974). Microbial
Degradation of Northern Crude Oils,Northern
Pipeline Task Force Report, Environmental-Social
Program, Vol. 74, p.1.
De Jong, E. (1980). The Effect of a Crude Oil Spill on
Cereals, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 22, pp. 172-
Gudin, A. (1987). Interaction between oil-vegetation and
soil. Proceeding of International Symposium on
ground water pollution by oil hydrocarbons, praga.
Odejimi, R. A. and Oghalu, O. (2006). Physiological
Impact of Crude Oil Polluted Soil on Growth
Carbohydrate and Protein Level of Edible Shoots of
Fluted Pumpkin (Teleferiaoccidentalis) Proceedings
of the 15th Annual Botanical Society of Nigeria
Conference, University of Uyo. Uyo, pp. 102-105.
Odu, C. T. I. (1981). Degradation and Weathering Crude
Oil under Tropical Condition,” Proceeding of
International Seminar of the NNPC, Warri, pp. 164-
Rowell, D. L. 1996. Soil Science: methods and application. University of Reading. UK.
Sharifi, M., Sadeghi, Y. and Akharpour, M. (2007).
Germination and growth of six plant species on
contaminated soil with spent oil. International
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
4 (4): 463 – 470.
Siddiqui, S. and Adams, W.A. (2002). The fate of diesel
hydrocarbons in soils and their effects on the
germination of perennial ryegrass. Environmental
Toxicology 17(1): 49-62.
Ying, W., Jiang, F., Qianxin, L., Xianguo, L., Xiaoyu,
W. and Guoping, W. (2013). Effects of Crude Oil
Contamination on Soil Physical and Chemical
Properties in Momoge Wetland of China. J.Chin.
Geogra. Sci., 23(6): 708-715.
Copyright (c) 2019 Ismaeel Tahir Ahmed, Muslim Rasul Khoshnaw
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation