Minimizing Time and Cost in The Iraqi AEC industry by Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) Technique.

  • Mahmood Maad Mahdi MSc Candidate in Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Khalil Ismail Wali Department of Civil Engineering,College of Engineering , Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Burog Abdullhalim Yuosif MSc. In public management, a consultant at the Ministry of Planning, Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: Building Information Modeling,, Construction Management, construction project, Cost & Time overrun, Sustainability


The Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is essential for its direct influence on the development of any country, particularly in terms of economy. Thus, problems related to cost and time arise as a global phenomenon in this industry, particularly in the third world countries like Iraq. The Building information modeling (BIM) technique is considered as the most adequate technique that overcomes the problems facing the AEC industry. This paper aimed to assess the causes of cost issues and time delays in the Iraqi AEC industry and to outline the BIM concept and the benefits of its application for solving these problems. This paper consists of two parts; the first one is the quantitative approach, which was adopted for data collection through a specially designed questionnaire form; these questionnaires were spread among 50 of the top and middle management in different construction companies, and other experts in the arena of AEC industry. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the highest influential factors on cost and time overrun are: inadequate planning and scheduling, selecting inefficient contractors, change orders, and the errors and mistakes in preparing the bill of quantities and materials (BOQ/BOM) with relative importance index (RII) of 0.98, 0.87, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. The second part of this paper reviewed the benefits of applying BIM and highly recommend this technology to improve the local AEC industry. The application of the BIM technique will lead to more sustainable design, construction, and project delivery in the Iraqi projects. This paper presents a significant set of recommendations that demonstrate how BIM technique can be applied to overcome the challenges of the AEC industry in Iraq. It unlocks the door for further authentic researches on the adoption of BIM technique as an influential and exceptional tool to point out the issues related to time and cost in the AEC industry in Iraq.


ABDUL RAHMAN, I., MEMON, A. H., KARIM, A. & TARMIZI, A. 2013. Significant factors causing cost overruns in large construction projects in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science, 13, 286-293.
ABDULLAH, M., AZIS, A. A. & RAHMAN, I. A. 2009. Potential effects on large mara construction projects due to construction delay. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 1.
AGC, A. 2005. The contractors guide to BIM. URL: http://iweb. agc. org/iweb/Purchase/ProductDetail. aspx.
ALI, H. B. M. 2015. Benefits of building Information Modeling for Construction in Sudan. Sudan University of Science and Technology.
ALINAITWE, H., APOLOT, R. & TINDIWENSI, D. 2013. Investigation into the causes of delays and cost overruns in Uganda's public sector construction projects. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 18, 33.
ARAYICI, Y., KHOSROWSHAHI, F., PONTING, A. M. & MIHINDU, S. Towards implementation of building information modelling in the construction industry. Proceedings Of The Fifth International Conference On Construction In The 21st Century: Collaboration And Integration In Engineering, Management And Technology, 2009. 1342-1351.
ASSAF, S. A. & AL-HEJJI, S. 2006. Causes of delay in large construction projects. International journal of project management, 24, 349-357.
AUTODESK. 2014. The Value of BIM for Owners: Save Time and Money During the Building Lifecycle [Online]. Available: [Accessed 23-Dec 2018].
AZHAR, S. 2011. Building information modeling (BIM): Trends, benefits, risks, and challenges for the AEC industry. Leadership and management in engineering, 11, 241-252.
AZHAR, S., NADEEM, A., MOK, J. Y. & LEUNG, B. H. Building Information Modeling (BIM): A new paradigm for visual interactive modeling and simulation for construction projects. Proc., First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries, 2008. 435-446.
BRYDE, D., BROQUETAS, M. & VOLM, J. M. 2013. The project benefits of building information modelling (BIM). International journal of project management, 31, 971-980.
CANTARELLI, C. C. Cost overruns in Dutch transportation infrastructure projects. Delft University of Technology. Conference Presentation, 2009. Citeseer, 19-20.
CIFE. 2007. CIFE Technical Reports [Online]. Available: [Accessed 23-Dec 2018].
DOLOI, H. 2012. Cost overruns and failure in project management: Understanding the roles of key stakeholders in construction projects. Journal of construction engineering and management, 139, 267-279.
EASTMAN, C., TEICHOLZ, P., SACKS, R. & LISTON, K. 2011. BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors, John Wiley & Sons.
ENSHASSI, A., AL-NAJJAR, J. & KUMARASWAMY, M. 2009. Delays and cost overruns in the construction projects in the Gaza Strip. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 14, 126-151.
FLYVBJERG, B., SKAMRIS HOLM, M. K. & BUHL, S. L. 2003. How common and how large are cost overruns in transport infrastructure projects? Transport reviews, 23, 71-88.
FRIMPONG, Y., OLUWOYE, J. & CRAWFORD, L. 2003. Causes of delay and cost overruns in construction of groundwater projects in a developing countries; Ghana as a case study. International Journal of project management, 21, 321-326.
GERGES, M., AUSTIN, S., MAYOUF, M., AHIAKWO, O., JAEGER, M., SAAD, A. & GOHARY, T.-E. 2017. An investigation into the implementation of Building Information Modeling in the Middle East. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), 22, 1-15.
GILLIGAN, B. & KUNZ, J. 2007. VDC use in 2007: significant value, dramatic growth, and apparent business opportunity. TR171, 36.
HARDIN, B. & MCCOOL, D. 2015. BIM and construction management: proven tools, methods, and workflows, John Wiley & Sons.
INNOVATION, C. C. 2007. Adopting BIM for facilities management: Solutions for managing the Sydney Opera House. Cooperative Research Center for Construction Innovation, Brisbane, Australia.
JERNIGAN, F. 2007. BIG BIM little bim: The practical approach to building information modeling, edn. 4Site Press, Salisbury, Maryland, United Sates.
LE-HOAI, L., DAI LEE, Y. & LEE, J. Y. 2008. Delay and cost overruns in Vietnam large construction projects: A comparison with other selected countries. KSCE journal of civil engineering, 12, 367-377.
MAHDI, M. M., ALI, N. S. J. Z. J. O. P. & SCIENCES, A. 2019. Reducing Waste of Construction Materials in Civil Engineering Projects In Iraq. 31, 257-263.
OLAWALE, Y. A. & SUN, M. 2010. Cost and time control of construction projects: inhibiting factors and mitigating measures in practice. Construction management and economics, 28, 509-526.
OSMAN, M. K. 2016. Implementation and potential benefits of building information modeling (BIM) in Sudan construction industry. Sudan University of Science and Technology.
RAZAK BIN IBRAHIM, A., ROY, M. H., AHMED, Z. & IMTIAZ, G. 2010. An investigation of the status of the Malaysian construction industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 17, 294-308.
SALEH, M. A. D. 2015. Barriers and Driving Factors for Implementing Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Libya. Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ).
SAMBASIVAN, M. & SOON, Y. W. 2007. Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry. International Journal of project management, 25, 517-526.
WALI, K. I., OTHMAN, S. A. J. Z. J. O. P. & SCIENCES, A. 2019. Schedule Risk Analysis Using Monte Carlo Simulation for Residential Projects. 31, 90-103.
YAN, H. & DEMIAN, P. 2008. Benefits and barriers of building information modelling.
YOCKEY, R. D. 2017. SPSS demystified, Taylor & Francis.
How to Cite
Mahdi, M., Ismail Wali, K. and Abdullhalim Yuosif, B. (2020) “Minimizing Time and Cost in The Iraqi AEC industry by Adopting Building Information Modeling (BIM) Technique.”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 32(6), pp. 185-196. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.32.6.19.
Mathematics ,Physics and Engineering Researches