Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1 and Glutathione S-transferase theta 1 Genes Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Erbil-Iraq Kurdistan Region
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) result from many reactions of heredity non-heredity factors. The null genotype for glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 or GSTT1) is regarded a risk agent leukemia, especially on CML in various inhabitants. The current study focused on evaluating association of two polymorphic identified genes Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1 and glutathione S-transferase null genotypes that respect to CML patients from Erbil province, hence this work was performed a case-control study that composed of 51 samples (62% males, 39% females) with CML included and 45 healthy controls (22% male and 78% females) have participated. Multiplex PCR was used to ascertain GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes. The chi-square test was done to show any link between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes that might be occurred in CML. There are significant statistical differences between incidence of GSTM1 null genotypes among CML cases and the increased CML risk was showed in patients bearing any of the GSTM1 null genotypes (OR = 2.196, 95%CI = (0.6017-6.806), P-value = 0.2108). While there is no statistical relation of GSTT1 null genotype with the risk of CML and exhibited lower risk initiation of CML occurrence (OR: 0.391, 95% CI: 0.1741-0.9033, P-value = 0.0304). Our findings demonstrate that GSTM1 null genotype is linked with the risk of CML patient development. The statements are helpful for formulating different investigation including GSTM1, GSTT1 variation genes and comparing research outputs with geography zone diverse in Iraq.
AL-ACHKAR, W., MOASSASS, F., AROUTIOUNIAN, R., HARUTYUNYAN, T., LIEHR, T. & WAFA, A. 2017. Effect of Glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphism on chronic myeloid leukaemia risk and Imatinib treatment response. Meta Gene, 12, 113-117.
Al-Attar M. & Qader M. 2017. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies of number of chronic mylogenous leukemia in Erbil province. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 29 (2); 1-17.
BAJPAI, P., TRIPATHI, A. K. & AGRAWAL, D. 2007. Increased frequencies of glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) null genotypes in Indian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res, 31, 1359-63.
BELITSKY, G. A. & YAKUBOVSKAYA, M. G. 2008. Genetic polymorphism and variability of chemical carcinogenesis. Biochemistry (Mosc), 73, 543-54.
BHAT, G., BHAT, A., WANI, A., SADIQ, N., JEELANI, S., KAUR, R., MASOOD, A. & GANAI, B. 2012. Polymorphic variation in glutathione-S-transferase genes and risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia in the Kashmiri population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 69-73.
BROWN, T. A. 2016. Gene cloning and DNA analysis: an introduction, John Wiley & Sons.
DEININGER, M. W. N., GOLDMAN, J. M. & MELO, J. V. 2000. The molecular biology of chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood, 96, 3343-3356.
FADERL, S., TALPAZ, M., ESTROV, Z., O'BRIEN, S., KURZROCK, R. & KANTARJIAN, H. M. 1999. The Biology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 164-172.
FANG, J., WANG, S., ZHANG, S., SU, S., SONG, Z., DENG, Y., CUI, H., WANG, H., ZHANG, Y., QIAN, J., GU, J., LIU, B., LI, P., ZHANG, R., LIU, X. & WANG, Z. 2013. Association of the glutathione s-transferase m1, t1 polymorphisms with cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis. PLoS One, 8, e78707.
HAYES, J. D. & PULFORD, D. J. 1995. The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 30, 445-600.
HISHIDA, A., TERAKURA, S., EMI, N., YAMAMOTO, K., MURATA, M., NISHIO, K., SEKIDO, Y., NIWA, T., HAMAJIMA, N. & NAOE, T. 2005. GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletions, NQO1 C609T polymorphism and risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia in Japanese. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6, 251.
JANCOVA, P., ANZENBACHER, P. & ANZENBACHEROVA, E. 2010. Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, 154, 103-16.
KASSOGUE, Y., DEHBI, H., QUACHOUH, M., QUESSAR, A., BENCHEKROUN, S. & NADIFI, S. 2015. Association of glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) genes with chronic myeloid leukemia. Springerplus, 4, 210.
SULAIMAN M. 2016. Cytogenetic study of Stomach cancer in Erbil City. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 28 (4); 56-65
LORDELO, G., MIRANDA-VILELA, A., AKIMOTO, A., ALVES, P., HIRAGI, C., NONINO, A., DALDEGAN, M., KLAUTAU-GUIMARÃES, M. & GRISOLIA, C. 2012. Association between methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and glutathione S-transferase M1 gene polymorphisms and chronic myeloid leukemia in a Brazilian population. Genet Mol Res, 11, 1013-26.
MA, W., ZHUANG, L., HAN, B. & TANG, B. 2013. Association between glutathione S-transferase T1 null genotype and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 48 studies. PLoS One, 8, e60833.
MAKHTAR, S. M., HUSIN, A., BABA, A. A. & ANKATHIL, R. 2017. Association of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms with clinical response to imatinib mesylate treatment among Malaysian chronic myeloid leukaemia patients. Journal of genetics, 96, 633-639.
MANNERVIK, B., AWASTHI, Y. C., BOARD, P. G., HAYES, J. D., DI ILIO, C., KETTERER, B., LISTOWSKY, I., MORGENSTERN, R., MURAMATSU, M., PEARSON, W. R. & ET AL. 1992. Nomenclature for human glutathione transferases. Biochem J, 282 ( Pt 1), 305-6.
MARCHEWKA, Z., PIWOWAR, A., RUZIK, S. & DŁUGOSZ, A. 2017. Glutathione S - transferases class Pi and Mi and their significance in oncology. Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, 71.
ÖZTEN, N., SUNGUROĞLU, A. & BOSLAND, M. C. 2012. Variations in glutathione‐S‐transferase genes influence risk of chronic myeloid leukemia. Hematological oncology, 30, 150-155.
PEARSON, W. R., VORACHEK, W. R., XU, S. J., BERGER, R., HART, I., VANNAIS, D. & PATTERSON, D. 1993. Identification of class-mu glutathione transferase genes GSTM1-GSTM5 on human chromosome 1p13. Am J Hum Genet, 53, 220-33.
RABAB, A. 2013. GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism in Egyptian Sickle Cell Anemia Patients. UHOD International Journal of Hematology and Oncology, 23, 269-275.
ROSTAMI, G., ASSAD, D., GHADYANI, F., HAMID, M., KARAMI, A., JALAEIKHOO, H. & KALAHROODI, R. A. 2019. Influence of glutathione S‐transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) genetic polymorphisms and smoking on susceptibility risk of chronic myeloid leukemia and treatment response. Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, e717.
SHARMA, A., PANDEY, A., SARDANA, S., SEHGAL, A. & SHARMA, J. K. 2012. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in Delhi and comparison with other Indian and global populations. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5647-52.
SHARMA, T., JAIN, S., VERMA, A., SHARMA, N., GUPTA, S., ARORA, V. K. & DEV BANERJEE, B. 2013. Gene environment interaction in urinary bladder cancer with special reference to organochlorine pesticide: a case control study. Cancer Biomark, 13, 243-51.
SOUZA, C. L., BARBOSA, C. G., MOURA NETO, J. P. D., BARRETO, J. H., REIS, M. G. & GONÇALVES, M. S. 2008. Polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase theta and mu genes and susceptibility to myeloid leukemia in Brazilian patients. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 31, 39-41.
TAIOLI, E. 1999. International collaborative study on genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 8, 727-8.
TASPINAR, M., AYDOS, S., COMEZ, O., ELHAN, A. H., KARABULUT, H. G. & SUNGUROGLU, A. 2008. CYP1A1, GST gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic myeloid leukemia. Swiss medical weekly, 138.
WEBB, G., VASKA, V., COGGAN, M. & BOARD, P. 1996. Chromosomal localization of the gene for the human theta class glutathione transferase (GSTT1). Genomics, 33, 121-3.
WEICH, N., FERRI, C., MOIRAGHI, B., BENGIÓ, R., GIERE, I., PAVLOVSKY, C., LARRIPA, I. B. & FUNDIA, A. F. 2016. GSTM1 and GSTP1, but not GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms are associated with chronic myeloid leukemia risk and treatment response. Cancer epidemiology, 44, 16-21.
Copyright (c) 2021 Mukhlis H. Aali, Govand Musa Qader, Mustafa S. Al-Attar, Mustafa F. Rajab, Mudhir S. Shehka
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation