Assessment of Risk Behaviors and Toxic Heavy Metals Exposure of Car Dye Workers in Repairing Services in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

  • Hawraz Sami Khalid Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Shokhan Sherzad Hamadamin Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Hanan Salm Salih Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Keywords: Heavy metals, Blood, Painters, ICP-OES, Erbil City


The main objective of this study was to determine blood cadmium (BCd) and blood lead (BPb) contents for 16 car dye workers in repairing service and compared to those of 16 controls (non-occupational exposed subjects) in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Strong wet acid digestion method was applied to digest whole blood samples using a mixture H2O2 (50% v/v) and HNO3 (65% v/v) with a volume ration (1:2). Inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine these toxic metals in collected whole blood samples. The recorded mean of BCd and BPb contents in subjected painters were higher levels compared to the control group. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) contents of BCd and BPb of painters were 2.93±2.35 μg/L and 32.19±16.95 μg/L, respectively. The mean ± SD contents of BCd and BPb of controls were 0.870±0.34 μg/L and 22.46±12.55 μg/L, respectively. A set of formal investigation questionnaire was performed to know participants history profile, smoking status, clinical profile, the risk behaviors at the workplace, and occurrence symptoms. The results showed that the percentages of occurrence of most investigated symptoms (especially respiratory and musculoskeletal) system on the experimental painters were significantly (p-value = 0.016) higher than those symptoms of the control group. The collected data on risk behaviors confirmed that personal protection equipment (PPE) had not been concerned by most of the experimental painters. Duration of work (years), and the use of PPE (wearing a respirator) were noticeably associated with BCd and BPb levels of painters.

Author Biography

Hawraz Sami Khalid, Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Hawraz is an assistant lecturer and has researches belong to environment. He is also active instructor in the area of academic debate skills.

He studied his first degree at the University of Salahaddin with the Bsc (hons) in chemistry. In 2011, he attended MSc course in the School of Applied Science/ University of Huddersfield –UK (Full time, 2011-2012). He got the degree of Master of Science with distinction in Analytical Chemistry in the UK through HCDP program. His thesis entitled "Microwave Induced Plasma for the Destruction of Organic Pollutants".


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How to Cite
Khalid, H., Hamadamin, S. and Salm Salih, H. (2020) “Assessment of Risk Behaviors and Toxic Heavy Metals Exposure of Car Dye Workers in Repairing Services in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 32(6), pp. 1-13. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.32.6.1.
Biology and Medical Researches