Essential Constituents of Truffle in Kurdistan Region
Essential constituents of truffle distributed in three different habitats of Kurdistan Region were investigated. Carbohydrates are the most abundant macronutrient ranged from 24.5% to 37%, the protein content was 4.4-5.0 %, fat 2-2.5 %, ash 3-3.2 % and moisture 73-75 %. High level of Chitin, a water insoluble polysaccharide was determined, (21-25 % of DM). The obtained results show high concentration of macro elements, potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and sodium, lower contents of essential elements iron, zinc, copper and chrome were found. Chemical constituents responsible for the antioxidant actions were examined as antioxidant activity (FRAP values), ascorbic acid, total phenolic, total flavonoids, β-carotene, tannin, lycopene and overall anthocyanins stated on a dry mass basis were (13-17 mmol Fe+2 equivalent/100g), (14-15.6 mg/100g), (14-20 mg/g DM), (6.19-8.41mg/100g), (1.55-2.16 mg/100g DM), (10.9-17.3 mg/g) (0.03-0.06mg/100g) and (10-15mg/100g DM) respectively. Total phenolics were the major antioxidant compounds as compared to β-carotene and ascorbic acid content.
AHMED, A. A., MOHAMED, M. A. & HAMI, M. 1981. Libyan Truffles “Terfezia Boudieri Chatin:” Chemical Composition and Toxicity. Journal of Food Science, 46, 927-929.
AKYÜZ, M. 2013. Nutritive value, flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the truffle (Terfezia boudieri Chatin). Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 13, 143-151.
AL-DAMEGH, M. A. 2014. Tirmania (Zubaidi) and Terfezia (Khallasi) Fungi Preparation Method Modulates Body and Testicular Weights and Blood and Testicular TestosteroneConcentration in Albino Rats. Journal of American Science, 10.
AL-LAITH, A. A. A. 2010. Antioxidant components and antioxidant/antiradical activities of desert truffle (Tirmania nivea) from various Middle Eastern origins. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 23, 15-22.
AL-LAITH, A. A. A. 2014. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of the White Desert Truffle Tirmania nivea (Zubaidi). Desert Truffles. Springer.
AL-NAAMA, N., EWAZE, J. & NEMA, J. 1988. Chemical constituents of Iraqi truffles. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6, 51-56.
AL-SHABIBI, M., TOMA, S. & HADDAD, B. 1982. Studies on Iraqi truffles. I. Proximate analysis and characterization of lipids. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 15, 200-202.
BENZIE, I. F. & STRAIN, J. J. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical biochemistry, 239, 70-76.
BOKHARY, H. & PARVEZ, S. 1993. Chemical composition of desert truffles Terfezia claveryi. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 6, 285-293.
BOKHARY, H., SULEIMAN, A. & BASALAH, M. 1989. The Fatty Acid Components of the Desert Truffle" Al Kamah" of Saudi Arabia. Journal of food protection, 52, 668-669.
BOKHARY, H., SULEIMAN, A., BASALAH, M. & PARVEZ, S. 1987. Chemical composition of desert truffles from Saudi Arabia. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 20, 336-341.
BONITO, G. M., GRYGANSKYI, A. P., TRAPPE, J. M. & VILGALYS, R. 2010. A global meta‐analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long‐distance dispersal. Molecular Ecology, 19, 4994-5008.
BOONSONG, S., KLAYPRADIT, W. & WILAIPUN, P. 2016. Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50, 89-97.
BRATEK, Z. 2010. Truffle cultivation. In: Győrfi, J. (ed.), Biology and cultivation of mushrooms (in Hungarian), Budapest, Hungary, Mezőgazda Kiadó.
DAHHAM, S. S., AL-RAWI, S. S., IBRAHIM, A. H., MAJID, A. S. A. & MAJID, A. M. S. A. 2018. Antioxidant, anticancer, apoptosis properties and chemical composition of black truffle Terfezia claveryi. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 25, 1524-1534.
DEL TORO, G. V., VEGA, R. C., GARÍN-AGUILAR, M. E. & LARA, H. L. 2006. Biological quality of proteins from three strains of Pleurotus spp. Food Chemistry, 94, 494-497.
EL ENSHASY, H., ELSAYED, E. A., AZIZ, R. & WADAAN, M. A. 2013. Mushrooms and truffles: historical biofactories for complementary medicine in Africa and in the middle East. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
GAN, C., AMIRA, N. B. & ASMAH, R. 2013. Antioxidant analysis of different types of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous and Agaricus brasiliensis). International Food Research Journal, 20, 1095.
GAO, J. M., WANG, C. Y., ZHANG, A. L. & LIU, J. K. 2001. A new trihydroxy fatty acid from the ascomycete, Chinese truffle Tuber indicum. Lipids, 36, 1365-1370.
GÜLSEN, T.-Ç., DEVECI, E., CAYAN, F. & DURU, M. E. 2018. Comparative assessment of phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of two Basidiomycota Truffle Fungi from Turkey. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal, 22.
HAMZA, A., JDIR, H. & ZOUARI, N. 2016a. Nutritional, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Tirmania nivea, a wild edible desert truffle from Tunisia arid zone. Med. Aromat. Plants, 5, 2167-0412.100.
HAMZA, A., ZOUARI, N., ZOUARI, S., JDIR, H., ZAIDI, S., GTARI, M. & NEFFATI, M. 2016b. Nutraceutical potential, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, a wild edible desert truffle from Tunisia arid zone. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9, 383-389.
HORWITZ, W. & LATIMER JR, G. 2006. Association of Official Analytical Chemists–AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Gaithersburg: AOAC International.
JULKUNEN-TIITTO, R. 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 33, 213-217.
KAEWNARIN, K., SUWANNARACH, N., KUMLA, J. & LUMYONG, S. 2016. Phenolic profile of various wild edible mushroom extracts from Thailand and their antioxidant properties, anti-tyrosinase and hyperglycaemic inhibitory activities. Journal of Functional Foods, 27, 352-364.
KAGAN-ZUR, V. & ROTH-BEJERANO, N. 2008. Desert truffles. Fungi, 1, 32-37.
KELEŞ, A., KOCA, I. & GENÇCELEP, H. 2011. Antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 2, 2-6.
KHOJASTEH, S. M. B., AMIRI, L. & SHEIKHZADEH, F. 2013. Effect of the alcoholic extract of Terfezia boudieri on reproductive hormones in male rats. Int J Pharm Bio Sci, 3, 517-522.
MELLO, A., MURAT, C. & BONFANTE, P. 2006. Truffles: much more than a prized and local fungal delicacy. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 260, 1-8.
NEDELCHEVA, D., ANTONOVA, D., TSVETKOVA, S., MAREKOV, I., MOMCHILOVA, S., NIKOLOVA‐DAMYANOVA, B. & GYOSHEVA, M. 2007. TLC and GC‐MS Probes into the Fatty Acid Composition of some Lycoperdaceae Mushrooms. Journal of liquid chromatography & related technologies, 30, 2717-2727.
PATEL, S. 2012. Food, health and agricultural importance of truffles: a review of current scientific literature. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 6, 15-27.
SEGNEANU, A., SFIRLOAGA, P., DAVID, I., BALCU, I. & GROZESCU, I. 2012. Characterisation of truffles using electrochemical and analytical methods. Digest J. Nanomater Biostruct, 7, 199-205.
SPLIVALLO, R., DEVEAU, A., VALDEZ, N., KIRCHHOFF, N., FREY‐KLETT, P. & KARLOVSKY, P. 2015. Bacteria associated with truffle‐fruiting bodies contribute to truffle aroma. Environmental Microbiology, 17, 2647-2660.
VAMANU, E. 2014. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures. BioMed research international, 2014.
VETTER, J. 2007. Chitin content of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes. Food Chemistry, 102, 6-9.
VETTER, J. & KRUZSELYI, D. 2014. Complex chemical evaluation of the summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittadini) fruit bodies. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 87.
WAHIBA, B., WAFAÀ, T., ASMAÀ, K., BOUZIANE, A. & MOHAMMED, B. 2016. Nutritional and antioxidant profile of red truffles (Terfezia claveryi) and white truffle (Tirmania nivea) from southwestern of Algeria. Der Pharmacia Letter, 8, 134-141.
WANG, S. & MARCONE, M. F. 2011. The biochemistry and biological properties of the world's most expensive underground edible mushroom: Truffles. Food Research International, 44, 2567-2581.
YAN, X., WANG, Y., SANG, X. & FAN, L. 2017. Nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three Tuber species from China. AMB Express, 7, 136.
YILDIZ, A., DÜNDAR, A., ACAY, H., AKYÜZ, M. & YEŞIL, Ö. 2006. Nutritive value of Pleurotus eryngii and Terfezia boudieri. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Agriculture ….
Copyright (c) 2020 pshtiwan abdullah yousif
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
At Zanco Journal, we're dedicated to protecting your rights as an author, and ensuring that any and all legal information and copyright regulations are addressed. Whether an author is published with Zanco Journal or any other publisher, we hold ourselves and our colleagues to the highest standards of ethics, responsibility and legal obligation