Isolation and Identification of Fungi and Fungus-like Organisms from Sewage Water and soil edge sewage water in the Erbil City
This study was carried out in Mycological –Laboratory\ Department of Biology –College of science during spring and autumn season in 2012. This study aims to survey fungi and fungus –like organisms from Sewage water and edge soil sewage water, in Erbil city. Certain physico-chemical parameters of water were performed following standard methods. Five sites at different locations along sewage waterway for 25km distance were chosen for this study. They baiting technique was used by (seed) and dilution method to the soil for isolation of fungi, used API 20C AUX and VITEK2 system to identifying yeasts. During spring (27) species isolated were belong to (14) genera, the most frequents isolated fungi were Geotrichium spp, Verticillium sp., and Fusarium spp. While during autumn isolate (34) species belong to the (17) genus, Most frequently fungi isolated were Fusarium spp, Trichoderma sp, Rhizopus sp, and Aspergillus sp. present results indicated the diversity of fungi and fungus –like organisms which isolated from edge soil of sewage water by dilution method during both seasons, (107) species belong to (37) Genera isolated, among these which they Aspergillus spp (70 x1000) cfu\g.soil Fusarium spp (94x 1000)cfu\g.soil, Geotrichium spp (65x1000)cfu \ g.soil , the minimum isolated fungi were Torula sp. ,Archnophora sp. ,Aristatoma sp. ,Bahnsakala sp. Harpographium sp., Phialophora sp. ,Arthrospora sp .,Aureobasidium sp. ,Myrothecium sp. ,Pythium sp. and Xylohyph sp. for each (1 x1000)cfu \g.soil .
-- Ali-Shtayeh, M.S.; Jamous, R.M.F and Abu-Ghdeib, S.I (1999). Ecology of cycloheximide-resistant fungi in field soils receiving raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water. Mycopathologia 144: 39–54
- Al-Rekabi, S .A. Al-Jubori, S. S. and Shneshil, S.S (2005). A study of the Pathogenicity of two aquatic fungi on carp eggs. International Conference on Aquatic Resource of the Arab region. Alexandria (2005).
- Anber, R.M.S. (1984). Studies on the algae of the polluted river Kelvin. Ph.D. Thesis.Univ. Of Glascow.UK.
- Bandh, S.A.; Kamili, N.A.; Ganai, B.A.; Saleem, S.; Lone,B.A. and Nissa, H. (2012). First qualitative survey of filamentous fungi in Dal Lake, Kashmir. Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research Vol. 3(1), pp. 7 – 11.
- Bapeer, U.H.K. (2004). Ecological study on the distribution of algae in different aquatic habitats within Erbil province. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Salahaddin-Erbil, Iraq.
- Dias, M.; Lacerda, I.; Pimentel, P.; De-Castro, H. and Rosa, C. (2002). Removal of heavy metals by an Aspergillus terreus strain immobilized in a polyurethane matrix. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 34:46-50
- Dick, J.R. (2001). Straminipilous Fungi, Systematics of the Peronosporomycetes including Accounts of the Marine Straminipilous Protists, the Plasmodiophorids and similar organisms. Kluwer, Dordrecht, NL.
- Eze, V.C. and Ogbaran, I.O. (2010). Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristic of fish pond water in Ughelli, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 8, pp.082-087
- Faqi Abdulla, N.Q. (2010). Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Soil Borne Fungi in Different Areas of Erbil Governorate. M.Sc. Thesis. College of science. Salahaddin University-Erbil.
- Farkha, T.K. and Abdulrahman, A.S. (2011). An Ecological Study on the Occurrence and Distribution of Aquatic Fungi in Sarchnar Water Spring within Sulaimani Province/ Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Journal of Al-Nahrain University Vol.14 (4), pp.137-145
- Farkha, T.K.J. (2006). A study of distribution of phytoplankton and aquatic fungi in the loti water in Baghdad district and the effect of environmental factors. Ph. D. Thesis. College of science, Al-Mustansiryia University in Biology, Botany.
- Faryal, R. and Hameed, A. (2005). Isolation and Characterization of Various Fungal Strain from Textile Effluent for their use in Bioremediation. Pak. J. Bot. 37(4): 1003-1008.
- Fuller, M.S.and Jawors ki, J.(1987) Zoospore Fungi in Teaching and Research Southeastern Publishing, Athens. pp. 310
-- Gaddeyya, G,; Niharika, P.S.; Bharathi, P. and Kumar, P.K.R. (2012). Isolation and identification of soil mycoflora in different crop fields at Salur Mandal. Advances in Applied Science Research , 3(4): 2020-2026.
- Ganjo, D.G.A.; Aziz, F.H. and Shekha, Y.A. (2006). An attempt for reuse of the wastewater of Erbil city for irrigation purposes. Zanko. 18(2):148- 175
- Gilman, J.C. (1966).A manual of Soil Fungi.2nd ed. The Lowa state University Press, Lowa, and USA.450pp.
- Godlewska, A.; Kiziewicz, B.; Muszyńska, E. and Mazalska, B. (2009). Fungi and Straminipilous Organisms Found in Ponds in Białystok. Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 18, No. 3, 369-376.
- Hussein, M.M.; Hatai, K. and Nomura, T.(2001). Saprolegniasis in salmonid. Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 5, 1988, p. 41 – 48.
- Jawetez, E.; Melnick, J. L.; Adelberg, E. A; Brooks, G. F.B; Butel, J.S. and Morse, S.A. (1998).Medical Microbiology.21thed. Middle East edition. Appleton and Lange. Norwalk, connect: cut/Los Altos, California
- Katowice and Poland (2000).Molecular Characterization of Acidophilic Microorganisms Capable of Degrading Petroleum Hydrocarbons. FY00 Final Report. Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research FloridaState University Tallahassee, Florida, USA.5: 16-20.
- Khulbe, R.D. and Drugapal, A. (1994). Sewage mycoflora in relation to pollutants in Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya. Poll. Res., 13(1): 53-58.
- Kinsey, G.C.; Paterson, R.R. and Kelley, J. (1999) Methods forthe determination of filamentous fungi in treated and untreated waters. J. Appl. Microbiol., 85: 214S-224S
- Kiziewicz, B. (2004). Occurrence of parasitic and predatory fungi and fungus-like organisms in different water reservoirs of Podlasie Province of Poland. Mycol. Balc. 1, 159–162.
- Lind, O.T. (1979). Handbook of common methods in limnology. C.V. company.USA. 197pp.
-- Moubasher, A.H. (1993).Soil fungi in Qatar and other Arab countries.Puplished by the center for scientific and applied Research.566pp.
- Muller, E. and Loeffler W. (1987). Zarys mikologi (mycology- an overview). PWR Il, Warszawa pp231. (in polish)
- Nazina, T.N.; Grigoryan, A.A.; Xue, Y.; Novikova, E.V. and Ivanov. M.V. ( 2002). Phylogenetic diversity of aerobic saprtrophic bacteria isolated from Daqing Oil Field. Microbiol., 71(1): 91-97
- Oblinger, J.L. and Koburger, J.A. (1975). Understanding and Teaching the Most Probable Number Technique. J.Milk Food Technol. Vol. 38 (9), p 540-545
Rabah, A. B.; Oyeleke, S. B.; Manga, S. B.; Hasssan, L G. and Ijah, U.J.J. (2010). Microbiological and physic-chemical assessment of soil contaminated with Abattoir Effluents in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria. Science World Journal Vol 5 (No 3)
Rankovic, B. (2005). Five Serbian reservoirs contain different fungal propagules. Mycologia 97(1): pp.50-56.
Sengupta, M. and Dalwani, R. (Editors). (2008). Investigation on Diversity, Distributionand Periodicity of Fungi in Shanthi Sagar Lake of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: 2009-2013
- Tarjani, N.S.K. (2006). Wastewater treatment using Typha angustifolia as a biological purifier for irrigation purposes. M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. of Salahaddin -Erbil. Iraq.
- Wurzbacher Christian; Janice, K. and Hans-Peter, G. (2011). Aquatic Fungi, The Dynamical Processes of Biodiversity - Case Studies of Evolution and Spatial Distribution,PhD. Oscar Grillo (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953- 307-772-7, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com
- Zahid, P.B. and Mehdi, F.S. (1992). Myco-Algal flora of the aquatic environment from vicinity of Karachi. Journal of Islamic Academy of Science, 5(4): 1-4.
- Geraldes, P; Pascoal, C and Cássio, F. (2012).Effects increased temperature and aquatic fungal diversity on litter decomposition. Fungal Ecology, 5 (6), pg. 734-740
American Public Health association (A.P.H.A.). (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th.Ed. A.P.H.A., 1015. Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC. 20005-2605.
Aziz, F.H.; Darokha, S.N. and Shekha, Y.A. (2001). Ecological and microbiological studies of Erbil citys sewerage. Sci. Conf. of water-Erbil. J. of Brayeti- Cent., 18:189- 206.
Baradaran, G.R. and Aminaee, M.M.(2011). Fluctuation of Plant Pathogens in Sugar Factory’s waste in Kerman Province of Iran. Archive of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. Vol. 44 (17). 1666-1675.
Czeczuga, B.; Kozlowska, M.; Godelewska, A. and Velu, C. (2008). Moina macrocopa (Straus): A Plankton Crustacean as a Vector for Fungus-Like Fish Parasites. Turk J Zool. Vol. 32 :19-26.
Elbert,W.; Taylor,P.E.; Andreae,M.O. and P¨oschl, U.(2007). Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569–4588,
El-Hissy, F.T.; Ali, E. H. and Abdel-Raheem A. (2004). Diversityof zoosporic fungi recovered from the surface water of fourEgyptian lakes. Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol. 4, 77.
El-Hissy, F.T.; Nassar, M.S.M.; Khallil, A.M. and Abdel-Motaal, F.F. (2001). Aquatic fungi recovered from water and submerged mud polluted with industrial effluents. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(9): 854-858.
Farkha, T.K.J. (2006). A study of distribution of phytoplankton and aquatic fungi in the loti water in Baghdad district and the effect of environmental factors. Ph. D. Thesis. College of science, Al-Mustansiryia University in Biology, Botany.
Godlewska, A.; Kiziewicze, B.; Muszynska, E. and Mazalska, B. (2012). Aquatic Fungi and Heterotrophic Straminipiles from fish ponds. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. Vol. 21, No. 3, 615-625
Iram, S.; Ahmad, I.; Javed, B.; Yaqoob, S.; Akhtar, K.; Kami, M.R. and Badar-Uz-Zaman. (2009). Fungal Tolerance to Heavy Metals. Pak. J. Bot., 41(5): 2583-2594
Ismael, H.M. (2009).Prevalence of dermatophytes and non dermatophyticfungi in a rural village of Iraqi Kurdistan with special reference to their inhibition by some natural plant extract.M.Sc. Thesis..College of science. Salahaddin University-Erbil
Kelley, J.; Kinsey, G.; Paterson, R.; Brayford, D.; Pitchers, R. and Rossmore, H. ( 2003). Identification and Control of Fungi in Distribution Systems. Awwa Research Foundation and American Water Works Association, Denver.
Nasser L.A. (2003). Distribution of zoosporic and terrestrial fungi in accumulated rainfall water in Abha, South Western region, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Biological Science, 3 (9): 843- 853.
Prasad, D.; Rajanaika; Joy, H. and Venkatarangaiah, K. (2009). Diversity of Aquatic Fungi in Relation to Environmental Conditions in Tunga River (South India) Researcher Volume 1 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 6), ISSN 1553-9865
-Sharma, G.; Pandey, R.R. and Singh, M.S. (2011). Microfungi associated with surface soil and decaying leaf litter of Quercus serrata in a subtropical natural oak forest and managed plantation in Northeastern India. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(7) pp. 777-787
Shekha, A.Y. (2008). The effect of Erbil city wastewater discharge on water quality of Greater Zab river, and the risks of irrigation. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of Baghdad - Baghdad, Iraq.
Sheriff, H.A.; Al-Saadi, H.A. and Saadalla, H.A.H. (1992). An ecological study on a water drainage system North-West of Baghdad-Iraq. J. Coll. For Women. Univ. Baghdad, 3: 88-92
Tabak, H.H. and Cooke, W.B. (1968). The effect gaseous environment on growth and metabolism of fungi. Bot. Rev. 34: 126-252.
Vital, M; Abranches, J; Hagler,A.N and Mendonça-Hagler, L.C. (2002). Mycocinogenic yeasts isolated from Amazon soils of the Maracá Ecological Station, Roraima-Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol.l. 33(3): São Paulo
Watanabe, T. (2002).Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi. Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species.2nded. CRC Press
Copyright (c) 2017 ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (print version: ISSN 2218-0230 online version: ISSN 2412-3986, DOI: 10.21271) is published by Salahaddin University-Erbil / Department of Scientific Publications. Responsibility for the contents rests upon the authors and not upon Salahaddin University-Erbil or the Journal Editorial and Advisory Boards.
Department of Scientific Publication Office: The Central Library of Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. Phone: +964 (0)66 2580274, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. www.su.edu.krd, www.zancojournals.su.edu.krd
Copyright and Reprint Permission: It is the policy of ZANCO to own the copyright to the technical contributions it publishes and to facilitate the appropriate reuse of this material by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit to the source for individuals for individual use.
Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved. Salahaddin University-Erbil