Combination Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Yield Components of two Wheat Species

  • Sakar Abdulqadr Saheed Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Dalshad Azeez Darwesh Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Mycorrhizae, phosphorus and wheat.


A pot experiment was conducted in green house of college of Science, University of Salahaddin- Erbil, during November 9th 2009 to May 4th2010, to study the effect of two levels (0, 20g.pot-1) of mycorrhizal inoculation, four levels (0.0, 25, 50, 75kg.dounm-1) of phosphorus fertilizer and their combination on yield components, on two wheat species Triticum durum L. and Triticum aestivum L. by using factorial complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The result showed that the application of mycorrhizal inoculation in both wheat species significantly (p≤0.05) affected total dry matter, grain weight, straw weight, grain yield and biological yield. While the application 50kg.dounm-1 of phosphorus fertilizer increased grain yield by 22.554% in Triticum durum L. and 22.554% in Triticum aestivum L. over control. Whereas application of 25kg.dounm-1 of phosphorus fertilizer with mycorrhizal inoculation, increased grain yield by 65% in Triticum durum L. and 50kg.dounm-1 of phosphorus fertilizer with mycorrhizal inoculation, increased grain yield by 135.372% in Triticum aestivum L. compared to control.


Download data is not yet available.


Khanam, D; M. A. U. Mridha and A. R. M. Solaiman (2006). Comparative study of arbuscular mycorrhizal association with different agricultural crops among four aezs of Bangladesh. Journal of Agricultural Research. 44 (2): 147-160.
Kucey, R. M. N. (1987). Increased phosphorus uptake by wheat and field beans inoculated with phosphorus–solualizing penicillium bilaji strain and with vesicular–arbuscular mycorhizal Fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 53(12): 2699-2703
Giorgio, D. D; D. Sisto; D. Ubaldo and A. V. Vonella (2004).The effects of N-fertilization levels and root mycorrhizal colonization on plant-growth and grain yield in durum wheat. 13th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference- Brisbane, July:762
Babana, A. H. and H. Antoun (2006). Effect of tilemsi phosphate rock-solubilizing microorganisms on phosphorus uptake and yield of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestiuvm L.) in Mali. Plant and Soil. 287:51-58.
Dawood, F. A. (1976). Winter wheat response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a sub-humid region . MSc. Thesis. Graduate School. University of Missouri-Columbia.
Gerwing, J; R. Gelderman; A. Heuer and A. Bly (1999). Fertilizers influence on soil test and spring wheat yield. Soil and Water Research. University of South Dakota: 1-3.
Mehdi, S. M; N. sajjad; M. Sarfraz; R. Ahmad; M. Asghar and G. Hassan (2001) . Comparative efficiency of P-Carriers in saline sodic soil .On Line Journal of Biological Sciences. 1(4):261-262.
Samad, M. A; C. A. Meisner; A. Rahman; M. Rahman ; J. M. Dxbury and J. G. Lauren (2002). Wheat root growth in phosphorus depleted soils.17th World Congress of Soil Science.14-9. Thailand. 1464-1473.
Shah, K. H; S. H. Siddiqui; M. Y. Memon; M. Imtaiz and P. Khan (2003). Performance of fertigation technique for P usage efficiency in wheat. Asain Journal of Plant Science. 2(15): 1088-1091.
Alam, S. M; S. A. Shah and M. Akhter (2003).Varietal differences in wheat yield and phosphorus use efficiency as influenced by method of phosphorus application. Songklanakarin Journal of Science Technologist. 25(2): 175 – 181
Li, H.Y; Y. G. Zhu; P. Marschner; F. A. Smith and S. E. Smith (2005). Wheat responses to arbuscular mycorrhzal fungi in highly calcareous soil differ from those of clover, and change with plant development and P supply. Plant and Soil. 277:221-232.
Shekhany, K. A. M. (2001). Effect of some fungicides and phosphorus levels on the efficiency of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. MSc. Thesis. College of Science. University of Sulimani-Iraq.
Raiesi, F. and M. Ghollarata (2006). Interactions between phosphorus availability and an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and their effects on soil microbial respiration, biomass and enzyme activities in a calcareous soil. Pedobiologia. 50: 413-425.
Mohammad, A.; B. Mitra and A. G. Khan (2004). Effect of sheared root inoculums of Glomus intaradices on wheat grown at different phosphorus level in the field. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Enviroment. 103: 245-249.
Barker, A. V. and D. J. Pilbeam (2007). Hand book of plant nutrition. CRC Press, United state of America: 51-186.
Razavi darbar, S. and A. Lakzain (2007). Evaluation of chemical and biological consequences of soil sterilization methods. Caspian Journal Environmental Science. 5(2): 87-91.
Allen, S. E. (1974).Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Black well scientific publication Osney Mead, Oxford : 64-214.
Richards, L. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils united states salinity laboratory staff, USA. Hand book No. 60.
Li, H. (2005).Roles of mycorrhizal symbiosis on growth and phosphorus nutrition of wheat in a highly calcareous soil. Ph. D. Thesis. Schools of earth and Environmental Sciences. University of Adelaide.
Mustafa, Kh. Kh. (2000). Effect of bacteria Rhizobium, mycorrhizae fungi and there interaction on some biological activities on broad bean Vicia faba plant. MSc. Thesis .College of Education .University of Sallahadin/Erbil – Iraq.
Phillips, J. M. and D. S. Hayman (1970). Improved procedures for cleaning roots and staining parasitic and VA mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions British Mycological Society.55: 158-161.
Islam, Z. U; S. Khan; J. Bakht and W. A. Shah (2002). Frequency of various N levels, loding and seed quality in wheat. Asain Journal of Plant Science. 1(5): 510-512.
Quanbao, Y; Z. Hongcheng; W. Haiyan; Z. Ying; W. Benfu; X. Ke; H. Zhongyang; D. Qigen and X. Ke (2007). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Front. Agriculture of China. 1(1):30-36.
Steele, R.G. and J.H. Torrie (1969). Principle and procedure of statistic. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York: 1-530.
Al-karaki, G. N; A. Al-Raddad and R. B. Clark (1998). Water stress and mycorrhizal isolate effects on growth and nutrient acquisition of wheat. Journal Plant Nutrition. 21:891-902.
Busman, L; J. Lamb; G. Randall; G. Rehm and M. Schmitt (2002). The nature of phosphorus in soil. University of Minnesota. Retrieved from websit (www.extension. umn. edu.).
Dalpe, Y. and M. monreal (2004). Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum to support sustainable cropping systems. Crop management net work.
Miransari, M; H. A. Bahrami; F. Rejali and M. J. Malakouti (2009). Effect of soil compaction and arbusculare mycorrhiza on Corn (zea mays L.) nutrient up take. Soil and Tillage Research. 103:282-290.
Newman, S. E. and F. T. Davies-Jr. (1987). High soil temperature and water relations of endomycorrhizal nursery crops. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 5(2): 93-96.
Marschner, P; Z. Solaiman and Z. Rengel (2006). Rhizosphere properties of Poaceae genotypes under P-limiting conditions. Plant and Soil. 283:11-24.
How to Cite
Abdulqadr Saheed, S. and Azeez Darwesh, D. (2021) “Combination Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Yield Components of two Wheat Species”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(s1), pp. 93-102. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.s1.10.