Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations based on its inhibiting effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of basic permanganate–luminol

Hijran Sanaan Jabbar


A Flow injection – chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is developed for the determination of diclofenac sodium (DS). The method based on the quenching effect of DS on the CL light generated from potassium permanganate-luminol system in basic medium. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were investigated. The calibration graph relating to the ∆CL signal intensity (∆peak height) VS the concentration of the DS was linear and it is suitable for determining DS in the range of 5.0 – 45.0 µg/mL, with the detection limit of 2.5 µg/mL and correlation coefficient of 0.9962. The method is applied successfully for determination of DS in pharmaceutical formulations and compared with high performance liquid chromatography method. F and t tests are less than the tabulated values at 95% confidence level.


Diclofenac sodium, chemiluminescence, basic permanganate, pharmaceuticals

Full Text:



ARANCIBIA, J. A., BOLDRINI, M. A. & ESCANDAR, G. M. 2000. Spectrofluorimetric determination of diclofenac in the presence of α-cyclodextrin. Talanta, 52, 261-268.

BAZEL, Y., HUNKA, I., KORMOSH, Z. & ANDRUCH, V. 2009. Spectrophotometric determination of [2-(2,6-dichloro-phenylamino)-phenyl]-acetic acid in pure form and in pharmaceuticals. Spectrochimica

Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 74, 1209–1214.

BOTELLO, J. C. & PÉREZ-CABALLERO, G. 1995. Spectrophotometric determination of Diclofenac sodium with Methylene Blue. Talanta, 42, 105-108.

CAMPANA, A. M. G., BAEYENS, W. R. G., RODRIGUEZ, L. C., BARRERO, F. A., SENDRA, J. M. B. & GRACIA, L. G. 2002. Potential of chemiluminescence and bioluminescence in organic analysis. Current Organic Chemistry, 6, 1-20.

CAMPIGLIO, A. 1998. Chemiluminescence determination of naltrexone based on potassium permanganate oxidation. Analyst, 123, 1053-1056.

DOWLING, G., GALLO, P., FABBROCINO, S., SERPE, L. & REGAN, L. 2008. Determination of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and phenylbutazone in bovine milk by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam, A25, 1497–1508.

EASWARAMOORTHY, D., YU, Y.-C. & HUANG, H.-J. 2001. Chemiluminescence detection of paracetamol by a luminol-

permanganate based reaction. Analytica Chimica Acta, 439, 95 - 100.

GARCı́A, M. S., ALBERO, M. I., SÁNCHEZ-PEDREÑO, C. & MOLINA, J. 1998. Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of diclofenac sodium in pharmaceuticals and urine samples. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 17, 267-273.

GARCIA, S., SANCHEZ-PEDRENO, C., ALBERO, I. & GARCIA, C. 2001. Flow-Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac or Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceuticals. Mikrochim. Acta, 136, 67 - 71.

GIMENES, D. T., FREITAS, J. M. D., MUNOZ, R. A. A. & RICHTER, E. M. 2011. Flow-Injection Amperometric Method for Determination of Diclofenac in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode. Electroanalysis, 23, 2521 - 2525.

GOODARZIAN, M., KHALILZADE, M. A., KARIMI, F., KUMAR GUPTA, V., KEYVANFARD, M., BAGHERI, H. & FOULADGAR, M. 2014. Square wave voltammetric determination of diclofenac in liquid phase using a novel ionic liquid multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 197, 114-119.

HARRIS, D. C. 2009. Exploring Chemical Analysis, USA, W. H. Freeman and Company.

HUSSAIN, M. A. & MAHMOUD, K. M. 2011. Der Pharma Chemica, 3, 321–329.

JADHAV, S. D., BUTLE, S. R., PATIL, S. D. & JAGTAP, P. K. 2015. Validated stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination and in vitro dissolution studies of thiocolchicoside and diclofenac potassium from tablet dosage form. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 8, 118-128.

JEFFERY, G. H., BASSETT, J., MENDHAM, J. & DENNEY, R. C. 1989. VOGELS: Text book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, London, Longman Scientific & Technical.

KAMATH, B. V. & SHIVRAM, K. 1993. Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac Sodium Via Oxidation Reactions. Analytical Letters, 26.

KAMATH, B. V., SHIVRAM, K. & SHAH, A. C. 1994. Determination of diclofenac sodium, famotidine and ketorolac tromethamine by flow injection analysis using dichloronitrophenol. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 12, 343 - 346.

KHALEEL, A. I., AMINE, S. T. & MAHOOD, A. B. M. 2006. A comparative Study of the Determination of Diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical Formulations by flow injection chemiluminescense and High performance liquid Chromatography. National Journal of Chemistry, 23, 314-326.

LUO, H. Q., LI, L. N. & LI, N. B. 2006. Second Chemiluminescence Behavior of Fe2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ in the Luminal–KMnO4 System. ANALYTICAL SCIENCES, 22, 621-625.

MATIN, A. A., FARAJZADEH, M. A. & JOUYBAN, A. 2005. A simple spectrophotometric method for determination of sodium diclofenac in pharmaceutical formulations. Il Farmaco, 60, 855-858.

NASIR, F., IQBAL, Z., KHAN, A., AHMAD, L., SHAH, Y., KHAN, A. Z., KHAN, J. A. & KHAN, S. 2011. Simultaneous determination of timolol maleate, rosuvastatin calcium and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceuticals and physiological fluids using HPLC-UV. Journal of Chromatography B, 879, 3434-3443.

NAVARRRO, M. V., PAYÁN, M. R., LÓPEZ, M. A. B., FERNÁNDEZ-TORRES, R. & MOCHÓN, M. C. 2010. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate–luminol luminescence system. Talanta, 82, 2003 - 2006.

OLIVEIRA, M. C., BINDEWALD, E. H., MARCOLINO JR, L. H. & BERGAMINI, M. F. 2014. Potentiometric determination of Diclofenac using an ion-selective electrode prepared from polypyrrole films. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 732, 11-16.

PIMENTA, A. M., ARAÚJO, A. N. & MONTENEGRO, M. C. B. S. M. 2002. Simultaneous potentiometric and fluorimetric determination of diclofenac in a sequential injection analysis system. Analytica Chimica Acta, 470, 185-194.

RODRIGUEZ, J. A., ISLAS, G., PAEZ-HERNANDEZ, M. E. & BARRADO, E. 2008. Sequential Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac in Urine and Pharmaceutical Formulations. J. Flow Injection Anal., 25, 39-43.

SHMUKLER, L. E., MANIN, N. G. & SAFONOVA, L. P. 2015. Conductometric study of diclofenac salts in water at different temperatures. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 208, 16-20.

SKOOG, D. A., WEST, D. M., HOLLER, F. J. & CROUCH, S. R. 2004. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, USA, Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

SONG, J., SUN, P., JI, Z. & LI, J. 2015. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate–formaldehyde. Luminescence, 30, 32-37.


WANG, Z., ZHANG, Z., FU, Z. & ZHANG, X. 2004. Sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence determination of terbutaline sulfate based on enhancement of the luminol-permanganate reaction. Anal Bioanal Chem, 378, 834 - 840.

YILMAZ, B. & CILTAS, U. 2015. Determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations by voltammetry and gas chromatography methods. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 5, 153-160.

ZHAO, L., LV, B., YUAN, H., ZHOU, Z. & XIAO, D. 2007. A Sensitive Chemiluminescence Method for Determination of Hydroquinone and Catechol. Sensors, 7, 578-588.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21271/zjpas.29.1.3

Copyright (c) 2017 ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (print version: ISSN 2218-0230 online version: ISSN 2412-3986, DOI: 10.21271) is published by Salahaddin University-Erbil / Department of Scientific Publications. Responsibility for the contents rests upon the authors and not upon  Salahaddin University-Erbil or the Journal Editorial and Advisory Boards. 

Department of Scientific Publication Office: The Central Library of Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. Cell Phone: +964 (0)750 7761675, email: zanco.scientific@su.edu.krd. www.su.edu.krd, www.zancojournals.su.edu.krd

Copyright and Reprint Permission: It is the policy of ZANCO to own the copyright to the technical contributions it publishes and to facilitate the appropriate reuse of this material by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit to the source for individuals for individual use.

Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved. Salahaddin University-Erbil