First record of Galeodes caspius subfuscus Birula, 1937 (Solifugae, Galeodidae) in Iraq with additional notes on Rhagodixa kurdistanica, Birula 1936 (Solifugae, Rhagodidae)

Fenik Fussen, Sherwan Ahmed



Solifuges were observed in many habitats in Erbil- city/Iraq; on ground, under stones and between grasses especially at night. Two species belong two family Galeodidae and Rhagodidae were identified from the study area, Galeodes caspius subfuscus Birula 1937, recorded for the first time in Iraq.


Keywords: solifugids, sun spider, camel – spider, Galeodidae, Rhagodidae

Full Text:




Bharat P and Sharma VK. 2015. The first report of the Solifugae (family:Galeodidae, Sundvell 1833) from adhya Pradesh, Indiarma, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3 (1): 75-77.

Blick T and Harvey M. 2011. Worldwide catalogues and species numbers of the arachnid orders (Arachnida). Arachnol. Mitt.41: 41–43.

Dippenaar-Schoeman A, Gonzalez RA and Harvey MS. 2006. A check-list of the Solifugae (sun spiders) of South Africa (Arachnida: Solifugae). African Plant Protection 12:70-92.

El-Hennawy HK.1999. Key to solpugid families(Arachnida:Solpugida). Serket, 2:20-27.

Harvey MS. 2003. Harvey, M. S. 2003. Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi,Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.).

Harvey MS. 2013. Solifuges of the World, version 1.0. Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Joint Humanitarian Information Center. (2004). Atlas of Erbil, Sulaimanya and Duhok governorate, 1st Vol.

Martisova MH, Pekar S and Gromov A. 2008. Biology of Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Solifugae, Galeodidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 35:546–550.


Copyright (c) 2017 ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (print version: ISSN 2218-0230 online version: ISSN 2412-3986, DOI: 10.21271) is published by Salahaddin University-Erbil / Department of Scientific Publications. Responsibility for the contents rests upon the authors and not upon  Salahaddin University-Erbil or the Journal Editorial and Advisory Boards. 

Department of Scientific Publication Office: The Central Library of Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kirkuk Road, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq. Cell Phone: +964 (0)750 7761675, email:,

Copyright and Reprint Permission: It is the policy of ZANCO to own the copyright to the technical contributions it publishes and to facilitate the appropriate reuse of this material by others. Photocopying is permitted with credit to the source for individuals for individual use.

Copyright © 2017. All Rights Reserved. Salahaddin University-Erbil