Using Stream Length-Gradient Index (SL Index) in the Morphological study of the Smaqooli valley Basin

  • Ahmed Yaseen Ali Geography Department -University of Koya
  • Tahseen Abdulrahim Azeez Geography Department / Salahaddin University-Erbill
  • Hikmat Abdulaaziz Hamad Geography Department -University of Koya

Abstract

 The aim of this study is to determine the influence area by the recent tectonic activities along the Smaqooli valley and it is tributaries using stream length – gradient index (SL). The longitudinal section and the necessary measurements of the index for main Smaqooli valley and it is 24 tributaries measured depending on 20 m interval contour map. The (SL) value of the sections is been extracted for the main section and it is (451) minor streams. Although the total value of the main stream. And the abnormal points have emerged by dividing minor streams value by the main stream value.

The investigation showed (351) Knick Point along the stream profile which their value exceeded number (2). Were (302) points of them was from the type 2 and (49) Knick Point of them were of the first type those which their (SL) values are more than (10). Which accounted a rate of (77, 65%) of total accounted points, and that was a big proportion and surly supported the recent tectonic activity in the basin. And it turned out that the second types of abnormal points have been distributed geographically on all of the minor valleys without taking any certain pattern, on contrary the first type points are distributed on two main ranges, which they are the northwest and the southeastern ranges. The longitudinal section of Smaqooli valley main stream and it is minor tributaries shows many renewed points and convex portions which reflected the roe of tectonic agents on them.  

Keywords: tectonic activity, stream- length gradient index, longitudinal section.

References

المصادر والمراجع
1ـ اقليم كوردستان العراق، وزارة النقل والمواصلات، الهيئة العامة للانواء الجوية، قسم المناخ، بينات مناخية لمحطة كوية للفترة (2002 - 2008)، بيانات غير منشورة
2- Azañón, J.M., etal, Active tectonics in the central and eastern Betic Cordillera through morphotectonic analysis: the case of Sierra Nevada and Sierra Alhamilla, Journal of Iberian Geology, 38, 2012.
3- Bull W., & McFadden, L. Tectonic geomorphology north and south of the Garlock Fault, California, Publications in Geomorphology, State University of New York at Bingamton, 1977.
4- Burbank, D,W., & Anderson, R.S., Tectonic Geomorphology,.García-Meléndez, E., Goy, J. L. & Zazo, C. 50, (2001.
5- Christopher Caran C. M.Woodruff, Jr. and Eric J. Thompson, Lineament Analysis and Inference of Geologic Structure — Examples from the Balcones/Ouachita Trend of Texas, Gulf Coast Association of GeologicalSocieties, Vol. XXXI, 1981.
6- Clark, M.K., etal, Surface uplift, tectonics, and erosion of eastern Tibet from large-scale drai¬nage patterns. Tectonics 23, TC1006. Doi: 10.1029/2002, 2004, TC001402.
7- Hack, J.T. Interpretation of erosional topography in humid temperate regions. American Journal of Science, Bradley, 258-A, 1960.
8- Hack, J.T. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal Research of United States Geological Survey. 1, 1973.
9- Keller, E.A., Investigation of active tectonics: use of surficial Earth processes. In: Wallace, R.E. (Ed.), Active Tectonics, Studies in Geophysics. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1986.
10- Keller, E.A., Pinter, N., Active Tectonics: Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 2002.
11- O'leary, D. W. Friedman, J. D. nd Pohn, H. A., Lineament, linear lineation some proposed new standards for old terms. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 87, 1976.
12- Richard, K, Rivers and processes in alluvial channels, Methuen, 1982.
13- Seeber, L. & Gornitz, V. River profiles along the Himalayan arc as indicators of active tectonics. Tectonophysics, v. 92, 1983.
14- Susan Rhea, Geomorphic observations of rivers in Oregon Coast Range from a regional reconnaissance perspective, Geomorphology, 6, 1963.
15- Talebian, M., Jackson, J., Offset on Main Recent Fault of NW Iran and implication for the later Cenozoic tectonics of the Arabia–Eurasia collision zone. Geophysical International Journal 150, 2002.
16- Tibor Buday, The Regional Geology of Iraq: Tectonism, magmatism and metamorphism, State Organization for Minerals, Directorate General for Geological Survey and Mineral Investigations, 1980.
Louisiana and Mississipi.Science 222, 1983.
17- Www. asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/mission.asp.
Published
2017-03-08
How to Cite
1.
Ali A, Azeez T, Hamad H. Using Stream Length-Gradient Index (SL Index) in the Morphological study of the Smaqooli valley Basin. JAHS [Internet]. 8Mar.2017 [cited 28Nov.2020];21(1):1-9. Available from: https://zancojournals.su.edu.krd/index.php/JAHS/article/view/1332
Section
Articles