Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Lead Nitrate in Toad Bufo viridis

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Naz Shwan Rasheed
Dilshad Hussain Hassan
Falah M. Aziz


Liver; kidney; lead nitrate; melanomacrophage center


The present investigation dealt with the study of the effect of two doses of lead nitrate (40mg/kg and 80mg/kg) for three weeks on the liver and kidney of the male toad, Bufo viridis. Lead nitrate caused several histological alterations in the studied organs in a dose dependent pattern. The histological alterations included degeneration of hepatocytes, dilation of blood sinusoids, leucocytes infiltration in the liver and kidney, degeneration of kidney tubule epithelial lining cells. The most important finding was the significant dose dependent increase in number of melanomacrophage centers (MMGs) in the liver compared to control. The later results can be used as an important marker for water pollution by this heavy metal.

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