Main Article Content
Cytogenetic effect / Human Lymphocyte / Brassica oleracea
The chromosomal aberration, Mitotic index (MI) were employed to investigate the in vitro effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) on human chromosomes. In vitro incubation for 48 hrs of normal human lymphocytes were studied with various concentrations (6.4, 3.2, 1.6, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.2 mg/ml) of Aqueous and Methanolic extract of broccoli. Results indicated a positive relationship between Mitotic index (MI) values and the methanolic extract at concentrations (0.19±0.012, 0.29±0.021, 0.26±0.003, 0.3±0.006, 0.32±0.011 and 0.34±0.008) respectively, and (0.12±0.006, 0.15±0.002, 0.19±0.011, 0.21±0.015, 0.22±0.021, 0.30±0.003) respectively, for aqueous extract, a significant differences noted (P≥0.01) among effects of different concentrations. MI value of positive control treatment cyclophosphamide (CP) (0.13±0.003) as compared with a negative control group (0.401±0.018). In addition the value of the damaged cells in negative control group was (0.06±0.01), whereas for positive control group was (43.65±0.003). The damaged cells for the treated group with extract revealed increasing in value in a concentration dependent manner from (4.99±0.08) to (26.53±0.004) and (5.75±0.08) to (23.43±0.023) for both aqueous and methanolic crude extract respectively as compared with the negative control (0.06±0.01). This effect maybe attributed to anti oxidative activity induced by Brassica oleracea
Bach Q T, Do Mink P, Ho T, and Tran T. T. (1973). Aberrations chromosomiques provoquees par lesherbicides et defoliants a doses massives et repetees au Sud Vietnam. Etudesur 58personnes.Y. Viet-Nam,Nl, 11-18 (in French).
Bacon J.R; Plumb G.W; Howie A.F; Beckett G.J; Wang W, and Bao Y. (2007). Dual Action of Sulforaphane in the Regulation of Thioredoxin Reductase and Thioredoxin in Human HepG2 and Caco-2 Cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1170–1176.
Borowski J; Szajdek A; Borowska EJ; Ciska E and Zielinski H. (2008). Content of selected bioactive components and antioxidant properties of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).European Food Research and Technology. 226: 459–465.
D’Archivio M, Filesi C, Di Benedetto R, Gargiulo R, Giovannini C and Masella R. (2007). Polyphenols, dietary sources and bioavailability. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore diSanita 43: 348–361.
Dinkova-Kostova AT; Fahey JW; Wade KL; Jenkins SN; Shapiro TA; Fuchs EJ, et al. (2007). Induction of the phase 2 response in mouse and human skin by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16: 847–851.
Eberhardt MV, Kobira K, Keck AS, Juvik JA, Jefery EH. (2005). Correlation analyses of phytochemical composition, chemical, and cellular measures of antioxidant activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). J Agric Food Chem, 53, 7421–7431.
Harborne J.B. (1984). Phytochemical methods. 2nd edition. Chapman and Hall Ltd. London. UK.
Hartikainen H. (2005). Biogeochemistry of selenium and its impact on food chain quality and human health. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 18: 309–318
Heimler D; Vignolini P; Dini MG; Vincieri FF and Romani A. (2006). Antiradical activity and polyphenol composition of local Brassicaceae edible varieties. Food Chem, 99, 464–469
Jagdish S, Rai M, Upadhyay AK, Bahadur A, Chaurasia SNS, and Singh KP. (2006). Antioxidant phytochemicals in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) cultivars. J Food Sci Technol, 43, 391–393.
Jeffery EH, and Araya M. (2009). Physiological effects of broccoli. Phytochemical Reviews 8: 283–298
Joy, P. P; Mathew J. T, and Skaria BP. (1998). Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, India.
Keck AS, and Finley JW. (2004). Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integrative Cancer Therapies 3:5–12.
Knudsen L. E.; Norppa H. ; Gamborg M. O. ; Nielsen Per S. ; Okkels H. ; Soll-Johanning H. ; Raffn E. ; Järventaus H. and Autrup H. (1999). Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution: Influence of DNA Repair and Polymorphisms of GlutathioneS-Transferase M1 and N-Acetyltransferase 2. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. Vol. 8, 303–310.
Kohlmeier L; Simonsen N, and Mottus K. (1995): Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis .Environ .Persp, 130:177-178.
Krishnaa G; Nath J; Petersena M, and Ong T. (1986). In vivo and in vivo/in vitro kinetics of cyclophosphamide-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow and spleen cells. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology. Volume 204, Issue 2, P 297-305
Lee SH, and Kohn H, (2009). Nucleophilic Activation of a Tetra-Substituted Mitomycin Cyclic Bis-Disulfide. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 57(2): 149-157.
Melchini A; Traka MH; Catania S; Miceli N; Taviano MF, et al. (2013). Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bio active compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 63: 132-138.
Mukherjee S, Gangopadhyay H and Das DK. (2008). Broccoli: a unique vegetable that protects mammalian hearts through the redox cycling of the thioredoxin super-family. Journal of Agricultural and. Food Chemistry. 56:609–617
Munters E; Pieters N; Cuypers A, and Penders J. (2010). Effects of broccoli sprouts intake on oxidative stress, inflammation, microalbuminuria and platelet function in human volunteers: a cross-over study. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 69 (OCE8), E590.
Nsimba R; Kikuzaki H and Konishi Y. (2008). Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodiumquinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds. Food Chem., 106, 760–766.
Obe G; Pfeiffer P.; . Savage J.R.K; Johannes C.; Goedecke W.; Jeppesen P.; Natarajan A.T.; Mart´ınez-López W.; Folle G.A. and Drets M.E. (2002). Chromosomal aberrations: formation, identification and distribution. Mutation Research. 504;17–36.
Shubber E.K; Amin B.H, and El-Adhami B.H. (1998). Cytogenetic effects of copper containing intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) on blood lymphocytes. Mutat. Res.; 2665: 1-7.
Shubber EK, and Juma AS. (1999). Cytogenetic effects of plants extract of Urtica dioca on mouse somatic cells. The Nucleus, 42 (3)182-187.
Silva NCC, and Fernandes JA. (2010). Biological properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antimicrobial activity. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. Vol.16, n.3, pp.402-413.
Takimoto C. H, and Calvo E. (2008). Principles of oncologic pharmacotherapy: in Cancer management, a multidisciplinary approach. Edited by R. Pazdur, L. D. Wagman, K. A. Camphausen and W. J. Hoskins, PRR, Melville, New York.
Tang D; Kari M; Warren G, and Yanzhuang W. (2007). Molecular mechanism of mitotic Golgi disassembly and reassembly revealed by a defined reconstitution assay. JBC. Doi; 10.1074.
Yadavet J.S; Thakur S, and Chadha P. (2003): Chyawanprah a genoprotective agent for bidi smoker.Int.J.Hum.Genet. 3:33-38.
Yanyan Li; Tao Z; Hasan K.; et al. (2010). Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli/Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 1; 16(9): 2580–2590.