The Behavior of Glauber's Salt as a Heat Storage Material for Residential Iraqi Buildings

  • Marwa Hamid Wasmi Department of Materials Eng., Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
  • Hayder Mohammed Jaffal Department of Materials Eng., Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
  • Tawfeeq Wasmi Mohammed Department of Materials Eng., Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
Keywords: Glauber's salt; PCMs; Heating; Energy saving; Solar energy.


Phase change ‎materials (PCMs) are regarded as a possible solution for reducing the energy consumption required for space heating by storing the heat daytime and releasing it at night. Glauber's salt (Na2SO4.10H2O) is one of the inorganic phase change materials. It possesses some desired properties over other PCMs such as low melting point, high thermal capacity and high thermal conductivity. The present study assists in evaluation of Glauber's salt as a PCM for heating required in residential buildings. The PCM was integrating with a glazed roof of a rig model to absorb the heat comes from sun during daytime and releasing it to the inside at night. Building considerations and thermo-physical properties of PCMs have been taken into account, while the ambient conditions and indoor conditions have measured experimentally. ‎Results obtained ‎showed that the indoor temperature could increase by 2-4 oC in the winter compared to that ‎measured in a traditional one. Furthermore, a simulation program depended on degree-days ‎method explained that the energy consumption could be saved up to 45 % even that salt hydrates have some problems related to super-cooling effects, phase segregation and incongruent melting.


Download data is not yet available.



Abdulsada G, Tawfeeq W (2015), Experimental and theoretical study for the performance of new local thermal insulation in Iraqi building, Renewable
Energy in the Service of Mankind, Vol I, pp. 487-501, Springer.
Ahmad H, Khaled A, Hamza A, Yasir R and Shaimaa A (2016), Effect of phase change materials (PCMs) integrated into a concrete block on heat gain prevention in a hot climate, Sustainability, Vol. 8, pp. 1-14.
Alvarode G and Luisa F (2015), Phase change materials and thermal energy storage for buildings, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 103, pp. 414-419.
Ashley B, Martin K, Thomas S and Evangelos I (2017), PCMs for residential building applications: a short review focused on disadvantages and proposals for future development, Buildings, 7, 78, MDPI.
Ayca T, Tahsin B and Cengiz S (2015), An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: The case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Energy and Buildings 102, pp. 91–104.
Belen Z, Jose M, Luisa F and Harald M (2003), Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, 23, pp. 251–283.
Brunberg E (1980), The Tepidus system for seasonal heat storage and for cooling, Proc int sem on thermo-chem energy storage, pp. 247-260.
Chenglong L, Lijie X, Jie J, Mengyin L and Dan S (2017), Experimental study of a modified solar phase change material storage wall system, Energy, Vol. 128, pp. 224-231.
Chengqiang Y, Pengfei J, Yun L, Chengying Q and Xian R, (2017), Development and thermal performance of an expanded perlite-based phase change material wallboard for passive cooling in building', Energy and Buildings, Vol. 152, pp. 547-557.
Donkers P, Sögütoglu L, Huinink H, Fischer H and Adan O (2017), A review of salt hydrates for seasonal heat storage in domestic applications, Applied Energy, 199, pp. 45-68.
Dong L, Zheng Y, Liu C and Guozhong W (2015), Numerical analysis on thermal performance of roof contained PCM of a single residential building, Energy Conversion and Management, 100, pp. 147–156.
Doyle P and Khalidah J (2010), Iraq has an opportunity to become a solar leader, Developments, DAI newsletter, pp. 9-11, Spring Issue,
Duane G and Kim H (1981), Design considerations in the use of Glauber salt for energy storage, Report for Utah Water Research Laboratory, USA.
Entrop A, Brouwers H and Reinders A (2011), Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated phase change materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses, Solar Energy, Vol. 85, pp. 1007-1029.
Esam M (2008), Thermal analysis of a building brick containing phase change material, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 40, pp. 531-557.
Gaeini M, Zondag H and Rindt C (2016), Effect of kinetics on the thermal performance of a sorption heat storage reactor, Appl Therm Eng, 102, pp. 520-531.
Hagar E, Stefano F, Valentina S, Roberto Z and Ernesto B (2017), Experimental and numerical analyses on thermal performance of different typologies of PCMs integrated in the roof space, Energy and Building, 150, pp. 546-557.
Hicham J and Heiselberg P (2016), Influence of internal thermal mass on the indoor thermal dynamics and integration of phase change materials in furniture for building energy storage: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 69, pp. 19-32.
Hyun B, Masayuki M, Youngjin C and Takeshi K (2017), Experimental analysis of thermal performance in buildings with shape stabilized phase change materials, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 152, pp. 524-533.
Hadjieva M, Stoykov R and Filipova T (2000), Composite salt-hydrate concrete system for building energy storage, Renew. Energy, 19, pp. 111–115.
Hale D, Hoover M., O’Neill M (1971), Phase change materials handbook, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Research and Engineering Center, USA.
Jianli L, Ping X, Hong H, Wenying D and Jinmin H (2009), Preparation and application effects of a novel form-stable phase change material as the thermal storage layer of an electric floor heating system, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 41, pp. 871-880.
Jong J, Trausel F, Finck C, Van L and Cuypers R (2014), Thermochemical heat storage-system design issues, Energy Procedia, 48, pp. 309-319.
Karthik M (2010), Application of phase change material in buildings: field data vs. EnergyPlus simulation, Master thesis submitted to Arizona State University.
Karunesh K, Shukla A and Sharma A (2017), Heat transfer studies of building brick containing phase change materials, Solar Energy, Vol. 155, pp. 1233-1242.
Kuznik F, David D, Johannes K and Roux J (2011), A review on phase change materials integrated in building walls, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, 15 (1), pp..379-391.
Letcher T (2016), Storing energy: with special reference to renewable energy sources, Elsevier, Oxford.
Lidia N, Alvaro G, Albert C, Servando A and Luisa F (2014), Design of a prefabricated concrete slab with PCM inside the hollows, Energy Procedia, Vol. 57, pp. 2324-2332.
Lu L, Hang Y and Rui L (2017), Research on composite-phase change materials (PCMs) bricks in the west 1 wall of room-scale cubicle: mid-season and summer day cases, Building and Environment, Vol. 123, pp. 494-503.
Marwa H, Hayder M and Tawfeeq W (2019), Integrating roof with phase change materials for heating purpose as an application of energy saving, MSc Thesis, Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering.
Mehling H and Cabeza L (2008), Heat and cold storage with PCM: an up to date introduction into basics and applications, Springer, Germany.
Mettawee E and Assassa G (2007), Thermal conductivity enhancement in a latent heat storage system, Sol. Energy, 81, pp. 839–845.
Michel B, Mazet N and Neveu P (2016), Experimental investigation of an open thermochemical process operating with a hydrate salt for thermal storage of solar energy: local reactive bed evolution, Appl Energy, 180, pp. 234-244.
Milan O (2010), Phase change materials for improved thermal indoor comfort, Brno University of Technology. Available online on:
Murat K and Khamid M (2016), Passive thermal control in residential buildings using phase change materials, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 103, pp. 371-398.
Murat K and Khamid M (2017), Experimental study on thermal performance of phase change material passive and active combined using for building application in winter, Applied Energy, Vol. 206, pp. 293-302.
Mushtaq T, Ahmed Q and Hasanain M (2013), Experimental and numerical study of thermal performance of a building roof including phase change material (PCM) for thermal management, Global Advanced Research Journal of Engineering, Technology and Innovation, Vol. 2(8), pp. 231-242.
Mushtaq I, Hadi O and Ahmed O (2018), Experimental investigation of phase change materials for insulation of residential buildings, Sustainable Cities and Society, 36, 42–58.
Rouhollah A and Amir S (2015), Energy saving in building using PCM on windows, Proceedings of 14th conference of international building performance simulation association, India, Dec. pp. 7-9.
Ryu H, Woo S, Shin B and Kim S (1992), Prevention of subcooling and stabilization of inorganic salt hydrates as latent heat storage materials, Sol. Energy Mate: Sol. Cells, 27, pp. 161–172.
Schmidt M, Szczukowski C, Roßkopf C, Linder M and Wörner A (2014), Experimental results of a 10 kW high temperature thermochemical storage reactor based on calcium hydroxide, Appl Therm Eng, 62 (2), pp. 553-559.
Stéphane G, Frédéric M, Dimitri B, Bruno M and Harry B (2015), Experimental investigation on a complex roof incorporating phase change material, Energy and Buildings, Elsevier, 108, pp.36-43.
Subbiah M (2017), Analysis of solar heat gains and environmental impact of the phase change material (PCM) wall, Innovative Energy & Research, Vol. 6, pp. 1-6.
USF (2018), Phase-change media for CSP thermal energy storage, Notes from University of South Florida. Available on, accessed on 12 Jan 2018
Xiangfei K, Shilei L, Jingyu H, Zhe C and Shasha W (2013), Experimental research on the use of phase change materials in perforated brick rooms for cooling storage, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 62, pp. 597-604.
Xing J and Xiaosong Z (2011), Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 1576-1581.
Xu W, Hang Y, Lu L and Mei Z (2016), "Experimental assessment on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) bricks in the exterior wall of a full-scale room, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 120, pp. 81-89.
Yusuf A (2016), Diurnal performance analysis of phase change material walls, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 102, pp. 1-8.
Zondag H, Kikkert B, Smeding S, Boer D and Bakker M (2013), Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system", Appl Energy, 109, pp.360-365.
How to Cite
Wasmi, M., Jaffal, H. and Mohammed, T. (2019) “The Behavior of Glauber’s Salt as a Heat Storage Material for Residential Iraqi Buildings”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 31(s3), pp. 26-33. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.31.s3.4.