Grain Size Analysis as Paleo-environment Indicator of Lower Pliocene Sediments (Bai-Hassan Formation), Garmian Area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

  • Sabah Abbas Majeed Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Garmian, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Garmian, grain size parameter; paleoenvironment; fluvial environment, floods


Grain size distribution has utilized to determine the paleoenvironment sediments. The study is primarily dependent on the analysis and description of plots and interrelation factors between parameters. Five samples have been collected in the five different facies along (90) m thickness in the outcrop. The grain size is ranging from (Ø -8 to 14), (Boulder to Clay) which has given good attention to such research. Grain size analysis indicated the major of the particles are Gravel and the minor proportion is (Sand and Mud), which shows that the samples are more Gravely (> 80%) except for the sample (5) is less (< 50%). Sediment transport mechanisms indicated that bimodal sources and were moved associated with the bed (rolling, sliding, and salting) based on the force of the flow. The statistical parameters pointed out the obvious results of the sediment environment. The values of Median and Mean were negative which inferred the coarse pebble size, sediments were very poorly sorted, finely skewed, and leptokurtic. Interrelationship factors between the parameters showed a clear interpretation of the Paleoenvironment and streamflow. The indications have shown that the sediment deposits in a river environment, high current energy, accompanied by strong turbulence currents.


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How to Cite
Majeed, S. (2021) “Grain Size Analysis as Paleo-environment Indicator of Lower Pliocene Sediments (Bai-Hassan Formation), Garmian Area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(3), pp. 58-69. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.3.7.
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