Influence of Solvents on The separation of Water From The bitumen Emulsions Using Alginite.

  • Sangar Salih Ahmed Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: Bitumen, Emulsion, Alginite, 1-butanol, Toluene


The impact of various diluents on the removing of water from bitumen emulsions for the distillation feed (bitumen) using alginite as a demulsifier was investigated. Alginite as a natural rock is able to remove water from the bitumen emulsion. The results demonstrated that the alginite can be enhanced by adding solvents. The separation of water without adding diluents using 0.5 wt.% was about 84 %. In contrast, the addition of 2.0 mL 1-butanol can significantly improve the process resulting in water removal of 98.3 %. Furthermore, at the highest volume of hydrocarbon solvent, which was a kerosene fraction (2 mL), this yields an increase in the last water separated from 73.5 % to nearly 81.3 % in the bitumen emulsion. Consequently, the results confirmed that applying toluene, hydrocarbon solvents, and medium-chain alcohols can enhance the destabilization process when they are used together with alginite. Thereafter, changing the physical characteristics of an emulsion with the addition of diluent leads to a decrease in the viscosity of the oil phase and contributes to the coalescence of water droplets.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdurahman H. Nour, Rosli Mohd Yunus and Zulkifly Jemaat (2007), “Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions”, Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 196–207.
Cendejas, G., Arreguín, F., Castro, L.V., Flores, E.A. and Vazquez, F. (2013), “Demulsifying super-heavy crude oil with bifunctionalized block copolymers”, Fuel, Vol. 103, pp. 356–363.
Czarnecki, J. and Moran, K. (2005), “On the Stabilization Mechanism of Water-in-Oil Emulsions in Petroleum Systems”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 2074–2079.
Elsayed Abdelfatah, Yining Chen, Paula Berton, Robin D. Rogers and Steven L. Bryant (Eds.) (2019), Tuning Ionic Liquids for Simultaneous Dilution and Demulsification of Water-In-Bitumen Emulsions at Ambient Temperature, SPE 193615, SPE Journal, USA.
Hippmann, S., Ahmed, S.S., Fröhlich, P. and Bertau, M. (2018), “Demulsification of water/crude oil emulsion using natural rock Alginite”, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 553, pp. 71–79.
Jiang, T., Hirasaki, G., Miller, C., Moran, K. and Fleury, M. (2007), “Diluted Bitumen Water-in-Oil Emulsion Stability and Characterization by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Measurements †”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 1325–1336.
Jiang, T., Hirasaki, G.J., Miller, C.A. and Ng, S. (2011), “Effects of Clay Wettability and Process Variables on Separation of Diluted Bitumen Emulsion †”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 25 No. 2, pp. 545–554.
Mullins, O.C. (2007), Asphaltenes, heavy oils, and petroleomics, Springer, New York.
Saad, M.A., Kamil, M., Abdurahman, N.H., Yunus, R.M. and Awad, O.I. (2019), “An Overview of Recent Advances in State-of-the-Art Techniques in the Demulsification of Crude Oil Emulsions”, Processes, Vol. 7 No. 7, p. 470.
Salam, K.K., Alade, A.O., Arinkoola, A.O. and Opawale, A. (2013), “Improving the Demulsification Process of Heavy Crude Oil Emulsion through Blending with Diluent”, Journal of Petroleum Engineering, Vol. 2013 No. 5, pp. 1–6.
Sjӧblom, H. Sӧderlund, S. Lindblad, E. J. Johansen and I. M. Skjӓrvö (1990), “Water-in-crude oil emulsions from the Norwegian continental shelf”, Colloid & Polymer Science, Vol. 268, pp. 389–398.
Yarranton, Hussein and Masliyah (2000), “Water-in-Hydrocarbon Emulsions Stabilized by Asphaltenes at Low Concentrations”, Journal of colloid and interface science, Vol. 228 No. 1, pp. 52–63.
Zhang, L.Y., Lopetinsky, R., Xu, Z. and Masliyah, J.H. (2005), “Asphaltene Monolayers at a Toluene/Water Interface †”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 19 No. 4, pp. 1330–1336.
How to Cite
Ahmed, S. (2021) “Influence of Solvents on The separation of Water From The bitumen Emulsions Using Alginite.”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(2), pp. 51-58. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.2.5.
Biology and Medical Researches