Cumulative effects of low X-ray doses on some liver function and proteins of diagnostic technicians working in conventional X-rays

  • Kharman Akram Faraj Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani
Keywords: Cumulative dose, X-ray, Proteins, Diagnostic, liver functions

Abstract

Today X-rays are widely used for diagnostic in medicine using different technics such as computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and conventional X-ray. During diagnostic procedures the technicians might expose to low X-ray doses especially those who omit radiation protection tools. The aim of the study was to assess liver function and proteins due to  the cumulative effects of low X-ray doses on diagnostic technicians through measuring  aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, albumin, globulin, serum ferritin (s.ferritin), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Twenty four male diagnostic technicians at Kirkuk hospitals participated, they classified into two groups depending on their working experiences, each group with 12 technicians. Twelve male healthy controls participated to show any alteration of the parameters. The results showed that ALT, AST and s.ferritin increased significantly (p<0.05) for the first group compared to the control while high significant (p<0.001) increasing was recorded for the second group. Total proteins decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the first group and high significant (p<0.001) decreasing in the second group compared with the control group. High significant (p<0.001) decreasing for albumin was recorded in both groups while globulin decreased insignificantly (p>0.05) in the first group and significant (p<0.05) decreases were recorded for the second group. For MDA and GSH high significant (p<0.001) increasing and decreasing respectively, recorded for both groups. The study revealed that low doses of X-ray can change some liver functions and proteins and the number of working years has discernible effects on the cumulative doses in diagnostic technicians.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ali H. Taqi, Kharman A. Faraj, Sarah A. Zaynal, et al.,2018, Effects of occupational exposure of X-Ray on hematological parameters of diagnostic technicians. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.147:45-52.
Bakshi, M.V.; Azimzadeh, O.; Barjaktarovic, Z. et al.,2015,Total Body Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Induces Long-Term Alterations to the Liver Proteome of Neonatally Exposed Mice. J. Proteome Res.14:366–373. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brenner, D.J. 2010. Should we be concerned about the rapid increase in CT usage? Rev Environ Health.25:63-8.
Brenner, D.J., Hall, E.J., 2007. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 2277–2284.

Cengiz M, Gurkaynak M, Vural H, Aksoy N, Cengiz B, Yildiz F,et al. 2003 Tissue trace element change after total body irradiation. Nephron Experimental Nephrology.94(1): 12‐6.
Dalle-Donne, I., R. Rossi, R. Colombo, et al.,2006, Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin Chem.52(4): 601-623.
De Santis, N., Ceari, E., Nobili, E., Straface, G., Cavaliere, A.F., Caruso, A., 2007.Radiation effects on development. Birth Defects Res. C. Embryo Today 81, 177–182.
Deger Y , Dede S, Belge A,et al.,2003, Effects of X-ray radiation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in rabbits treated with antioxidant compounds. Biol Trace Elem Res. 94(2):149-56.
Dublin LI, Spigelman M. Mortality of medical specialists, 1938– 1942. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 1948; 137(17):1519-1524.
Goranson E. S., McCulloch E. A., and E. A. Cinits. 1969, The Effect of Whole-Body X-irradiation on an Alpha Globulin Component in the Serum of C3Hf/HeHa Mice, Radiation Research, 12: 560-566.
Haitian Zhao, Zhenyu Wang, Fengming Ma. et al., 2012, Protective Effect of Anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var.Edulis on Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13:11773-11782; doi:10.3390/ijms130911773.
Hall, E.J., Crenner, D.J., 2008. Cancer risks from diaqnostic radiology. Br. J. Radiol. 81, 362–378.

Hashim S, Karim M, Bakar K, Sabarudin A, Chin A, Saripan M,et al.2016 Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64‐slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.126:14‐20.
Helmy A.. 2006. Review article: updates in the pathogenesis and therapy of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther ,23: 11−25.
Jacobs A, Hodgetts J, Hoy T. 1984,Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Amsterdam: Elsevier science publisher, ;pp. 113–27.
Jorn Ditzel.1969, The Effect of Total-Body X-Irradiation on Serum Proteins in the Hamster. Radiation Research 5: 694-702.
Lawrence TS, Robertson JM, Anscher MS. et al.,1995. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys.31: 1237−48.
Liren Q, Jianliang S. 2010,The potential cardio protective eff ects of hydrogenin irradiated mice. Radiation research 51:741-747.
Marnett, L.J., 2002, Oxy radicals, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Toxicology. 181-182:219-222.
Meydan, D., Gursel B. , Bilgici B. , et al.,2011, Protective effect of lycopene against radiation-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. J. Int. Med. Res. 39(4): 1239-52. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986126
Morado M., Ojeda E., Garcia-Bustos J. et al., 2000,“Serum ferritin as risk factor for veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Prospective cohort study,” Hematology,4(6):505–512.
Moron, M. S., Depierre, J. W. and Mannervik, B.(1979) Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1979; 582: 67-78.
Muhamad Idham Mohamed, Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad.2014, Induction of Oxidative Stress Following Low Dose Ionizing Radiation in ICR Mice. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 10 (2): 198-203. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjms.2014.10.2.8262
Naz N., Moriconi F, Ahmad S. et al. 2013, “Ferritin L is the sole serum ferritin constituent and a positive hepatic acute phase protein,” Shock ,39(6):520–526.
Nureddin, A.S. Musa and Nadia.O. Alatta ,2016, Effects of long-Term Exposure to Low X-ray on the Blood Consist of Radiology Department Staffs of Health Center in Libya, International Journal of Information Research and Review, 3(11),3077-3080.
Nwokocha CR, Nwokocha M, Mounmbegna P, et al., 2012,Proteins and Liver Function Changes in Rats Following Cumulative Total Body Irradiations, West Indian Med J.61: 773-777.
Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation in Interventional Fluoroscopy: Severity of Adverse Effects of a Growing Health Problem, 2015. ORSIF Organization for Occupational Radiation Safety in Interventional Fluoroscopy.
Ochs A.Acute hepatic vascular complications. Internist (Berl) 2011; 52(7):795-6, 798-800, 802-3. doi: 10.1007/s00108-010-2795-y.
Ozasa, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Suyama, A.et al.,2012, Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950–2003: An overview of cancer and noncancer diseases. Radiat. Res.177: 229–243. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pan, C.C.; Kavanagh, B.D.; Dawson, L.A. et al., 2010,Radiation-associated liver injury. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.76; S94–S100. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pierce DA, Preston DL., 2000.Radiation-related cancer risks at low doses among atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res.154: 178–186.
Preston DL, Kitahara CM, Freedman DM, et al., 2016 Breast cancer risk and protracted low-to-moderate dose occupational radiation exposure in the US Radiologic Technologists Cohort, 1983–2008. Br J Cancer.115(9):1105-1112.

Protasova O, Maksimov I, Nikiforor A., 2001,Altere balance of trace element in blood serum after exposure to low doses of Ionization Radiation. Biol Bull Russ Acad Sci.28(4):344‐9.
Qing Sun, Weiming Mao, Haiyue Jiang et al., 2018, The Effect of Protracted Exposure to Radiation on Liver Injury: A Cohort Study of Industrial Radiographers in Xinjiang, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health,15: 71; doi:10.3390/ijerph15010071
Radiation biology: A handbook for teachers and students, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 2010

Radiation Oncology Physics: A handbook for Teachers and students. International Atomic Agency,Vienna, 2005
Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2001,P V.
Rao, B., Soufir, J. C., Martin, M. et al.,1989,Lipid peroxidation in human spermatozoa as related to midpiece abnormalities and motility. Gamete Research. 24: 127-134.
Richard M.Gore, Marc S. Levine, High–yield imaging, gastrointestinal. 1st ed. Philadelphia: saunders, 2010.
Robson B, Aline AB, BrunoTR, et al. 2013, Effect of black grape juice against heart damage from acute gamma TBI in rats. Molecules, 18:12154-67.
Roobottom, C.A., Mitchell, G., Morgan-Hughes, G. 2010, Radiation-reduction strategies in cadiac computed tomographic angiography. ClinRadiol.65:859-67.
Rosler P., Christiansen H., Kortmann R.D., Martini C., Matuschek C., Meyer F., Rube C., Langer T., Koch R., Eich H.T., et al. 2015, Hepatotoxicity after liver irradiation in children and adolescents: Results from the risk. Strahlenther. Onkol. Organ Deutsch. Rontgenges. 191:413–420.doi:10.1007/s00066-014-0796-9. [Abstract] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Sener, G., L. Kabasakal, B.M. Atasoy, et al.,2006, Propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism protects ionizing radiation-induced multiple organ damage in rats. J. Endocrinol. 189(2): 257-269.
Shahia Yasmin,Jyoti,Garima,Nidhi Rastogi, Anupma Kumari, Doris D’souza, 2009,Hematological Biomarkers for Detection of Occupational Health Hazards in X-ray Technicians, The Bioscan, 4(3),409-412.
Stryker J.A., 2007, Science to Practice: Why is the Liver a Radiosensitive Organ? Radiology.242:1–2. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2421061103. [Abstract] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Sultan A. Meoos. 2004,Hematological findings in male X-ray technicians. Saudi Medical Journal, (7): 852856.
Tai A, Erickson B and Allen X.,2008, Extrapolation of normal tissue complication probability for different fractionations in liver irradiation. Int J Radiation Oncology Biol Phys. 74(1) : 283-289.

Torti S. V., Kwak E. L., Miller S. C. et al.1998, “The molecular cloning and characterization of murine ferritin heavy chain, a tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene,” Journal of Biological Chemistry ,263.(25):12638–12644.
Walsh, L.; Grosche, B.; Schnelzer, M.et L.,.2015.A review of the results from the.German Wismut uranium miners cohort. Radiat. Prot. Dosim.164:147–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhe Feng, Ji-Wei Chen, Jian-Hua et al., 2015,The association between serum ferritin with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Exp Med. 12:22293-22299.
Zielinski, J.M.; Garner, M.J.; Band, P.R. et al.,2009, Health outcomes of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure among medical workers: A cohort study of the Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health ,22: 149–156. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Published
2021-06-20
How to Cite
Faraj, K. (2021) “Cumulative effects of low X-ray doses on some liver function and proteins of diagnostic technicians working in conventional X-rays”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(3), pp. 43-50. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.3.5.
Section
Mathematics ,Physics and Engineering Researches