Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in livestock using cox1 gene in Erbil Provence- Kurdistan Region/ Iraq

  • Muhammad J. Muhammad Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Shaqlawa Technical College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.
  • Zuber Ismael Hassan Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Shaqlawa Technical College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.
Keywords: prevalence, DNA. Cox1gene, phylogenetic tree, Erbil Province


     52 Fasciola hepatica worms (22 sheep, 3 goats and 27 cattle) from livers and bile ducts were collected. The prevalence rate of Fascioliasis was 7.28%, 3.37% and 10.19%, respectively. Among the three hosts regarding the sex, females of sheep and goats show a higher infection rate than males (4.3% and 2.25% versus 2.98% and 1.12%). Simultaneously, the prevalence rate was slightly higher in female cattle (5.28%) than male cattle (4.91%). Used the adult worms for DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification. The sequences of amplified products were identified under accession number  (MT951586) of sheep were 99.51%, and (MT951587) of goat was 99.75% homologous to Iranian goat Fasciola hepatica (KF992219). Furthermore, the cattle Fasciola hepatica (MT951585) was 99.2% homologous with the reference of Iranian goat. Using phylogenetic tree analysis, isolated F. hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle is positively related to various global F. hepatica.


Download data is not yet available.


ABDULWAHED, T. K. & AL-AMERY, A. M. 2019. Morphological and molecular study of Fasciola spp. in sheep in Alkut city. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 14, 121-130.
ALAJMI, R. A. 2019. Molecular characterization of Fasciola flukes using mitochondrial 28S rRNA gene in Naimi Saudi sheep. Saudi J Biol Sci, 26, 112-117.
AMOR, N., HALAJIAN, A., FARJALLAH, S., MERELLA, P., SAID, K. & BEN SLIMANE, B. 2011. Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Exp Parasitol, 128, 196-204.
BARAN, A. I., SARAY, H. C. & KATIRAEE, F. 2017. Molecular determination of Fasciola spp. Isolates from domestic ruminants fecal samples in the northwest of Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 12, 243.
BOZORGOMID, A., ROUHANI, S., HARANDI, M. F., ICHIKAWA-SEKI, M. & RAEGHI, S. 2020. Genetic diversity and distribution of Fasciola hepatica haplotypes in Iran: Molecular and phylogenetic studies. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, 19, 100359.
DAR, Y., AMER, S., MERCIER, A., COURTIOUX, B. & DREYFUSS, G. 2012. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp.(digenea: Fasciolidae) in Egypt. Parasite: journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie, 19, 177.
EMAN, K., SHERIF, M. & REDA, S. 2016. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica infecting cattle from Egypt based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. J. Parasitol, 11, 61-66.
ERENSOY, A., KUK, S. & OZDEN, M. 2009. Genetic identification of Fasciola hepatica by ITS-2 sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA in Turkey. Parasitology research, 105, 407.
FARJALLAH, S., BEN SLIMANE, B., PIRAS, C. M., AMOR, N., GARIPPA, G. & MERELLA, P. 2013. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers. Exp Parasitol, 135, 471-8.
GALAVANI, H., GHOLIZADEH, S. & TAPPEH, K. H. 2016. Genetic characterization of Fasciola isolates from West Azerbaijan province Iran based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequence of ribosomal DNA. Iranian journal of parasitology, 11, 52.
HALL, T. A. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic acids symposium series, 1999. [London]: Information Retrieval Ltd., c1979-c2000., 95-98.
HAMED, N., AYADI, A. & HAMMAMI, H. 2014. Epidemiological studies on fasciolosis in northern Tunisia. Revue Méd. Vét, 165, 49-56.
HAMOO, R., AL-RUBAYE, F. & MUSTAFA, N. 2019. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of fasciola gigantica in iraqi sheep using ITS1. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci, 7, 256-260.
ISAH, U. M. 2019. Studies on the prevalence of Fascioliasis among ruminant animals in northern Bauchi state, north-eastern Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiol Control, 5, e00090.
KANTZOURA, V., KOUAM, M. K., DEMIRIS, N., FEIDAS, H. & THEODOROPOULOS, G. 2011. Risk factors and geospatial modelling for the presence of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and goat farms in the Greek temperate Mediterranean environment. Parasitology, 138, 926-38.
KORDSHOOLI, M. S., SOLHJOO, K., ARMAND, B., DOWLATKHAH, H. & JAHROMI, M. E. 2017. A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran. Vet World, 10, 418-423.
LOTFY, W. M., PERERA, V. B. V. P., LOKER, E. S., BRANT, S. V., RAJAPAKSE, R. P. V. J., LAURSEN, J. R., DEMIASZKIEWICZ, A., DEJONG, R. J. & LE, T. H. 2008. Evolutionary Origins, Diversification, and Biogeography of Liver Flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae). The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 79, 248-255.
MAGAJI, A. A., IBRAHIM, K., SALIHU, M. D., SAULAWA, M. A., MOHAMMED, A. A. & MUSAWA, A. I. 2014. Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir, Sokoto, Nigeria. Advances in Epidemiology, 2014, 1-5.
MESHGI, B., JAHANI, Z. & AMININIA, N. 2017. Fasciola gigantica of Ruminants: The phylogenetic analysis based on COX1 sequences. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 11, 21-29.
MOAZENI, M., SHARIFIYAZDI, H. & IZADPANAH, A. 2012. Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Parasitology research, 110, 2379-2384.
MOHAMMED, A. B., MUSTAFA, A., ISSA, A. R. & MERO, W. M. 2016. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola Spp. Isolated From the Gallbladder of Infected Cattle in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region Iraq. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 4, 37-42.
MUNITA, M. P., REA, R., MARTINEZ-IBEAS, A. M., BYRNE, N., MCGRATH, G., MUNITA-CORBALAN, L. E., SEKIYA, M., MULCAHY, G. & SAYERS, R. G. 2019. Liver fluke in Irish sheep: prevalence and associations with management practices and co-infection with rumen fluke. Parasit Vectors, 12, 525.
NASR, S. M., BAZH, E. K. A. & FADLY, R. S. 2016. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola hepatica Infecting Cattle from Egypt Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Sequences. Research Journal of Parasitology, 11, 61-66.
ORYAN, A., MANSOURIAN, M., MOAZENI, M., NIKAHVAL, B. & BARBAND, S. 2011. Liver distomatosis in cattle, sheep and goats of Northeastern Iran. Glob Vet, 6, 241-246.
PIRI, K., SAIDIJAM, M., MAGHSOOD, A., MATINI, M. & FALLAH, M. 2018. Prevalence of Animal Fasciolosis and Specification of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Sheep, Goats and Cattle by Molecular Method: Hamadan Province, West of Iran. Iran J Parasitol, 13, 524-531.
RAOOF, H. S., MARIF, H. F., RAHMAN, H. S., OMAR, M., SHEIKH, B. & SAN AHMED, A. M. 2020. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola species in sheep and goats in Sulaymaniyah Province, Northern Iraq.
SAH, R., KHADKA, S., LAKHEY, P. J., PRADHAN, S., SHAH, N. P., SINGH, Y. P. & MAS-COMA, S. 2018. Human case of Fasciola gigantica-like infection, review of human fascioliasis reports in Nepal, and epidemiological analysis within the South Central Asia. Acta Parasitol, 63, 435-443.
SHAFIEI, R., SARKARI, B., SADJJADI, S. M., MOWLAVI, G. R. & MOSHFE, A. 2014. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran. Vet Med Int, 2014, 405740.
SHALABY, I. & GHERBAWY, Y. 2013. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola sp. isolated from imported sheep in Taif region (Saudi Arabia). Tropical biomedicine, 30, 1-12.
SIMSEK, S., UTUK, A. & BALKAYA, I. 2011. Molecular differentiation of Turkey cattle isolates of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Helminthologia, 48, 3-7.
TADAYON, S., SHARIFIYAZDI, H., MOAZENI, M. & DIVAR, M. R. 2015. Molecular differentiation of Fasciola species and characterization of genetic diversity of F. gigantica using NADH dehydrogenase I (ND1) gene in the endemic areas of Iran. Iranian journal of parasitology, 10, 9.
TAMURA, K., STECHER, G., PETERSON, D., FILIPSKI, A. & KUMAR, S. 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular biology and evolution, 30, 2725-2729.
THOMPSON, J. D., GIBSON, T. J., PLEWNIAK, F., JEANMOUGIN, F. & HIGGINS, D. G. 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic acids research, 25, 4876-4882.
YADAV, S., AHADUZZAMAN, M., SARKER, S., SAYEED, M. & HOQUE, M. 2015. Epidemiological survey of Fascioliasis in cattle, buffalo and goat in Mahottari and Dhanusha, Nepal. J. Adv. Parasitol, 2, 51-56.
YADAV, S. K. 2015. Epidemiological Survey of Fascioliasis in Cattle, Buffalo and Goat in Mahottari and Dhanusha, Nepal. The Journal of Advances in Parasitology, 2, 52-56.
YAKHCHALI, M., MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, R., IMANI-BARAN, A. & MARDANI, K. 2015. Morphological and molecular discrimination of Fasciola species isolated from domestic ruminants of Urmia city, Iran. Iranian journal of parasitology, 10, 46.
ZEKARIAS, T. & BASSA, T. 2019. Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in Damot Sore Woreda, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia.
How to Cite
J. Muhammad, M. and Hassan, Z. (2021) “Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in livestock using cox1 gene in Erbil Provence- Kurdistan Region/ Iraq”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(4), pp. 36-42. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.4.4.
Biology and Medical Researches