Effect of pomegranate peel extract and Thyme leaves extract on growth of Escherichia coli isolated from infant diarrhea

  • Kareem Ibrahim Mubarak Department of Biology, College of Science, Diyala University
  • Doaa mahmood mahady
Keywords: Escherichia coli , infants diarrhea , plant extracts ,pomegranate thyme.


     This study were done in Al Batoul Teaching Hospital Baquba, Diyala   Province,   Iraq from 25/ 9/2016 to 1/2/2017, two hundred  Stool samples were collected in sterile container  from infants suffered  from diarrhea with the age less than two year. All stool samples were  cultured  on MacConkey  agar to isolation and identify Enteropathogenic  Escherichia coli and then  sub cultured of expected isolates on the Eosin Methylene Blue agar medium  (EMB) ,  identification  of  bacteria  on the base of morphological characteristics ( colony  , shape , Gram stain ),  and  biochemical tests were done according to standard procedures, then confirmation of diagnoses were performed by by Api20E and VITEK 2. Sensitivity test of Escherichia coli isolates to fifteen antibiotics were performed to select the multi drug resistance isolates for investigation the inhibition effect of pomegranate peel extract and Thyme leaf extract on those isolates ,the results showed a high antibacterial effect of alcoholic extracts of pomegranate peel followed by the hot and cold water extract, were the rate of diameters of the inhibition zone at the concentration 100 mg / ml 21.92 , 18.02 and 14.02 mm respectively. The inhibitory activity of Thyme leaf extract at concentration of 100 mg /ml for alcoholic, aquatic extract hot and cold water extract were 11.3,9.8 and 3.22 mm respectively. We concluded that both alcoholic extracts of pomegranate peel and Thyme have a good inhibitory effect against growth of multi drugs resistance pathogenic Escherichia coli .


Download data is not yet available.


1- Karam, M. A., Bouzari, S., Oloomi, M., Aslani, M. M., and Jafari, A. (2010). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains in Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of microbiology, 2(1), 3.

2-WHO. ( 2009 ) Diarrhea ;why children are still dying whate can be done 1-68 .

3- Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Johnson, H. L., Lawn, J. E., Rudan, I., Bassani, D. G., ... and Eisele, T. (2010). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. The lancet, 375(9730), 1969-1987.

4- Palmer, K. R., Penman, I. D. and Paterson-Brown, S. (2002). Alimentary tract and pancreatic disease. Colledge , N. R. and Hunter, A. A. Davidson’s principles and apractice of edicine, 19th ed. Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh.
5- Fanaro, S; Chierici, R; Guerrini,P .&Vigi, V( 2003 )Intestinal micoflorain earl in fancy. Composition and development. Acta paediatr sppl ., 91 :48-5
6- Bélanger, L., Garenaux, A., Harel, J., Boulianne, M., Nadeau, E., and Dozois, C. M. (2011). Escherichia coli from animal reservoirs as a potential source of human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 62(1), 1-10.
7- Badry , A . H. H ; Ahmed ,Y. J And Wijdan M. S. M. ( 2014 ) . Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With Diarrhea in Infants And Children in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region / Iraq .Science Journal of University of Zakho Vol 2 No 2
8 -Al-Hasnawi ,E. A. F, May. Y .and Dewan E.K. Dewan ( 2018 ) Isolation of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) from chronic diarrheal Iraqi Infants .
science Journal of Medical Research . Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp 61-63.
9 -Nascimento. G, Locatelli. P, Freitas. C and Silva. G (2000). Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals on Antibiotic resistant Bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology Vol.31:247-256.

10- Silva, N. C. C., and Fernandes Júnior, A. (2010). Biological properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antimicrobial activity. Journal of venomous animals and toxins including tropical diseases, 16(3), 402-413.

11 -McGimpsey, J. A., Douglas, M. H., Van Klink, J. W., Beauregard, D. A., and Perry, N. B. (1994). Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from naturalized Thymus vulgaris L. in New Zealand. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 9(6), 347-352.

12 -Cosentino, S. C. I. G., Tuberoso, C. I. G., Pisano, B., Satta, M. L., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., and Palmas, F. (1999). In‐vitro antimicrobial

activity and chemical composition of Sardinian thymus essential oils. Letters in applied microbiology, 29(2), 130-135.

13- Giordani, R., Regli, P., Kaloustian, J., Mikail, C., Abou, L., and Portugal, H. (2004). Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candidaalbicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris. Phytotherapy Research, 18(12), 990-


14-Pinto, E., Pina-Vaz, C., Salgueiro, L., Gonçalves, M. J., Costa-de-Oliveira, S., Cavaleiro, C., ... and Martinez-de-Oliveira, J. (2006). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida,

Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. Journal of medical microbiology, 55(10), 1367-1373.

15-Amakura, Y., Okada, M., Tsuji, S., and Tonogai, Y. (2000). High-performance liquid chromatographic determination with photodiode array detection of ellagic acid in fresh and processed fruits. Journal of Chromatography A, 896(1-2), 87-93

16 -Mertens-Talcott, S. U., Jilma-Stohlawetz, P., Rios, J., Hingorani, L., and Derendorf, H. (2006). Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(23), 8956-8961

17 -Tang, J., Li, B., Hong, S., Liu, C., Min, J., Hu, M., ... and Hong, L. (2017). Punicalagin suppresses the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells through inhibition of the β-catenin pathway. Molecular medicine reports, 16(2), 1439-1444

18-Lansky, E. P., and Newman, R. A. (2007). Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 109(2), 177-206.
19 Colombo, E., Sangiovanni, E., and Dell'Agli, M. (2013). A review on the anti-inflammatory activity of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
20-Winn, W .;Allen,S.;Konemans,W.; Procop,G.;Schrevkenberger,P. and Wood .G (2006). Koneman's color Atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology..6th ed. Lippincott,Williams and wilkins.pp 277- 385 .

21- Brown,A.E.(2007) .Microbiological Applications . laboratory manual in general microbiology10th ed McGraw – HILL comp . inc USA ., p . 102- 263 .
22 -Pincus , D.H.( 2011) .Microbial identification using the Biomeriux Vtek R2 system .biiMeriux,inc.Hazelwood , MO , USA .1 : 1- 32

23_ CLSI. (2014) . Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing twenty-second informational supplement.M100-S24.Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute . 34 (1): 58-172.

24- Rhajaoui, M., Ourmazil, H., Faid, M., Lyagoubi, M., Elyachioui, M., and Benjouad, A. (2001). Antibacterial activity of a Moroccan propolis extracts. Science Letters, 3(3), 1-3

25- El-Fallal, A. A., and El-Kattan, M. H. (1997). Effect of plant extracts on the mycelial growth of some cultivated mushrooms. Egyptian Journal of Microbiology (Egypt).

26- Parekh, J., and Chanda, S. (2007). In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turkish Journal of Biology, 31(1), 53-58.
27- Nweze E, Okafor J. (2010). Antifungal activities of a wide range of medicinal plants extracts and essential oils against Scedosporium apiospermum isolates. American- Eurasian J of Scientific research. 5(3): 161- 169

28 – Kumar, M., Agarwal, R. C., Dey, S., Rai, V. K., & Johnson, B.(2009). Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula

RETZ. on gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. International Journal of current pharmaceutical research, 1(1), 56-60.

29 Levesque, R. (2007) . SPSS Programming and Data Management , 4th. ed . Chicago .522 .
30-Seeram, N. P., Adams, L. S., Henning, S. M., Niu, Y., Zhang, Y., Nair, M. G., and Heber, D. (2005). In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 16(6), 360-367.
31- Hamady, G. A., Abdel-Moneim, M. A., El-Chaghaby, G. A., Abd-El-Ghany, Z. M., and Hassanin, M. S. (2015). Effect of Pomegranate peel extract as natural growth promoter on the productive performance and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens. African Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 3(12), 514-519.

32- Nuamsetti, T., Dechayuenyong, P., and Tantipaibulvut, S. (2012).

Antibacterial activity of pomegranate fruit peels and arils. Science Asia, 38(3), 319-2

33- Odunbaku . O. A. and Askidi, J .S.( 2012).Antimicrobial effect of ethanol leaf extract of selected medical plaint on some human pathogenic microbes .international journal of science and Advanced technology .volume 2 No 4 :39-42.

34- Mohsenipour, Z., and Hassanshahian, M. (2015). The inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six human pathogenic bacteria. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine, 5(4), 309.

35-Sienkiewicz, M., Lysakowska, M., Ciecwierz, J., Denys, P., & Kowalczyk, E. (2011). Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Medicinal Chemistry, 7(6), 674-689.

36- Balkan, C. E., Karamese, M., Celebi, D., Aydogdu, S., Dicle, Y., and Calık, Z. (2016). The determination of the antibacterial activities of Rose, Thyme, Centaury and Ozone Oils against some pathogenic microorganisms, Kafkas. J Med Sci, 6, 18-22.

37- Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N., and Polissiou, M. G. (2000). GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 48(6), 2576-2581.
How to Cite
Ibrahim Mubarak, K. and mahmood mahady, D. (2021) “Effect of pomegranate peel extract and Thyme leaves extract on growth of Escherichia coli isolated from infant diarrhea”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 33(s1), pp. 103-110. doi: 10.21271/ZJPAS.33.s1.11.